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E-kniha: Tocharian Studies -- Works 1 – Václav Blažek

Tocharian Studies -- Works 1

Elektronická kniha: Tocharian Studies
Autor: Václav Blažek
Podnázev: Works 1

– Kniha je souborem studií věnovaných tocharské etymologii a gramatice a obsahuje i dva životopisné a bibliografické portréty dvou osobností tocharistiky: Wernera Wintera a Pavla Pouchy. 
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Kniha je souborem studií věnovaných tocharské etymologii a gramatice a obsahuje i dva životopisné a bibliografické portréty dvou osobností tocharistiky: Wernera Wintera a Pavla Pouchy. 

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tocharština
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Raní Indoevropané v Centrální Asii a Číně -- Kulturní vztahy v zrcadle jazyka Raní Indoevropané v Centrální Asii a Číně
Vjačeslav Vsevolodovič Ivanov (21. 8. 1929 - 7. 10. 2017) Vjačeslav Vsevolodovič Ivanov (21. 8. 1929
 (e-book)
Staré germánské jazyky -- Historický a gramatický přehled Staré germánské jazyky
 
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Václav Blažek

Tocharian Studies

Works 1

Masaryk University Brno



Tocharian Studies

Works 1


This book was kindly reviewed by

Ronald Kim

&

Melanie Malzahn


Václav Blažek

Tocharian Studies

Works 1

Edited by Michal Schwarz

Masaryk University

Brno 2011


This book was published under patronage of the Centre for the Interdiscipli

nar Research of Ancient Languages and Older Stages of Modern Languages

(project code: MSM 0021622435) at Masaryk University in Brno and thanks

to the grants GAAV No. IAA901640805 & MUNI/21/BLA/2011.

All articles are reprinted with kind permission from following journals (in

alphabetical order):

Archív orientální

Historische Sprachforschung

Indogermanische Forschungen

Journal of Indo-European Studies

Lingua Posnaniensis

Linguistica Baltica

Linguistica Brunensia

Tocharian and Indo-European Studies

© 2011 Václav Blažek

© 2011 Masarykova univerzita

ISBN 978-80-210-7645-7 (online : pdf)

ISBN 978-80-210-5600-8 (brožovaná vazba)

ISBN 978-80-210-5599-5 (Box Set)

DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-5600-2011

IV


Content Preface (Melanie Malzahn) Introduction and Plan of the Works of Václav Blažek Chronological list of all Tocharian articles of Václav Blažek with editorial notes I. Etymology Tocharian Linguistics During the Last 25 Years. Archív Orientální 56 (1988), 77-81. Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses I. Sl. *kъpъ : Toch. *kwip“shame”. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 5 (1991),

123-128.

Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses II. Sl. *čьlnъ : Toch. *kolmo

“ship”. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 5 (1991), 129-

133.

Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses III. Linguistica Baltica 4 (1995),

233-238. Tocharian-Anatolian isoglosses (1-4). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 7 (1997), 229-233. It is possible to restore Tocharian A ku//// “nave, hub”? Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 7 (1997), 234-235. The Tocharian word for “monkey” – inherited or borrowed? Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 7 (1997), 236-238. Tocharian – Anatolian isoglosses II (5 – 6). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8 (1999), 75-78. Alimenta Tocharica (1 – 3). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8 (1999), 79-84.

VIII

X

XII

1

2

10

15

19

25

30

32

35

40

V


The Tocharian and Celtic “span”. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8 (1999), 85-86. Toward the Cardinal Points in Tocharian. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 9 (2000), 29-32. Tocharian A muk ‘yoke’ and A maku, B mekw pl. ‘(finger)nails’ – why m? Historische Sprachforschung 114 (2001), 191- 195. Tocharian AB kät- “to scatter”, its derivatives and relatives. Indogermanische Forschungen 106 (2001), 81-83. Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses IV. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 10 (2003), 11-13. A Tocharian key to the etymology of the bird-name *srĝó“stork”. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 10 (2003), 15-16. Tocharian A k

u

li, B klyiye “woman” < *ĝ/gleH

2

„i-H

1

en-? His

torische Sprachforschung 118 (2005), 92-100. Tocharian ‘camel’. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 11 (2009), 39-42. Tocharian AB kwär- ‘to grow old’. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 12 (2011), 57-62. II. Grammar Nástin tocharské historické gramatiky. [“A sketch of the Tocharian historical grammar”]. Linguistica Brunensia. Sborník prací filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity, A56 (2008), 33- 58.

46

48

52

57

60

63

65

74

78

83

84 VI III. Ethno-Linguistics & History Tocharians. Who they were, where they came from and where they lived. Lingua Posnaniensis 50 (2008), 47-74. IV. Bio- & Bibliographies Werner Winter (*25 October 1923 – †7 August 2010). Journal of Indo-European Studies 39 (2011). 235-254. Pavel Poucha (*29. 12. 1905 Vienna - † 15. 1. 1986 Prague) – his life, travels and complete bibliography. Index of words Tocharian A Tocharian B

112

113

148

149

173

211

212

218

VII


Preface

Since the decipherment of the two Tocharian languages in 1908 this eastern

most branch of Indo-European has fascinated linguists as well as non-lin

guists. Apart from analyzing the Tocharian languages as such, the question of

the migration of the speakers of Proto-Tocharian to nowadays China and the

position of Tocharian among the other branches of Indo-European have been

much discussed topics ever since. During three decades of active publishing

Václav Blažek has without a doubt made a significant contribution to Tochari

an studies in all its respect. Being both a comparative philologist in the narrow

sense of studying Indo-European languages (the further prospective volumes

will show that Professor Blažek indeed published on almost every branch of

Indo-European) as well as an historical linguist with wide knowledge of non

Indo-European languages of Central and Inner Asia (among others), Professor

Blažek’s main focus in Tocharian studies was on etymological connections

with neighboring languages and their consequences for language contact.

The first part of this volume concentrating on his contributions to all kinds of

matters Tocharian hence contains eighteen etymological studies that appeared

from 1988 to 2011, the second part being a long sketch of the grammar of

Tocharian A and B (co-written with Michal Schwarz). Although it is written

in Czech, even readers without a command of that language will no doubt

judge the many paradigms and reconstructions to be found in it very useful.

Part three offers the reprint of a rich paper on the position of Tocharian (again

co-written with Michal Schwarz) making much use of the method of lexico

statistics, which was so far not so easy to access.

Also other Czech scholars have made important contributions to the field of

Central and Inner Asian studies in general and Tocharian as well as Iranian and

Indian in particular. The eminent work of the Czech Orientalist Pavel Poucha

was and still is rightly acknowledged in the field, especially his Thesaurus

Linguae Tocharicae Dialecti A (Praha 1955), which remained the standard refe

rence work until very recently. Václav Blažek not only picked up and

VIII


continued that tradition, he now in the final part of this volume (Bio- and Bib

liographies) also published for the first time a highly welcomed biographical

article on Pavel Poucha’s life and work.

It is reasonable to hope that the present volume of selected writings by Vác

lav Blažek will both further enhance Tocharian studies in the author’s home

country in the future and make Tocharian studies more visible internationally

as well.

Melanie Malzahn

IX


Introduction and Plan of the Works of Václav Blažek

Prof. Václav Blažek has published many linguistic studies in international as

well as regional journals, proceedings and memorial volumes within the last

decades. I have thought it impossible to acknowledge or appreciate the ex

tent and scope of his work without the articles being published together. So I

decided to prepare a series of thematic volumes corresponding to the various

spheres of linguistic interests of my tutor. This first volume is dedicated to the

Tocharian languages. The next volumes will be devoted to the following lan

guage groups and topics according to Václav Blažek’s updated bibliography:

Indo-European (2-3 volumes), Slavic (1-2 volumes), Germanic (2 volumes),

Afro-Asiatic (2 volumes), Baltic, Celtic, Indo-Iranian, Uralic, Altaic, Semitic,

Distant relationship, General Linguistics, Comparative Mythology. Studies of

other language groups could be published in volumes under the designation

“Varia” (Italic & Romance, Palaeo-Balkanian, Hellenic, Anatolian, Kartvelian,

Paleo-Siberian, Dravidian, Elamite, Austric, Australian). Were there demands

for bulky editions, some topical volumes described above could be combined.

If possible, any future monographs will be published in this series (i.e. Works)

as well. Naturally I anticipate and hope for several more decades of prolific

work by Prof. Blažek and consequently I expect modifications of the plan out

lined here, both in topics and number of volumes.

In this first volume I compiled the list of articles and rewrote the earliest ar

ticles from the pre-computer era, and those written in outdated software and

phonetic fonts. While selection, authorisation and updating of articles were

done by the author, the organisation of the volume and typing errors remain my

responsibility. The content of this Tocharian volume is divided into sections: I.

Etymology, II. Grammar, III. Ethno-linguistics & History and IV. Bio- & Bibli

ographies. (The biography and first complete bibliography of Pavel Poucha is

the only article written especially for this volume – the previous Czech version

was too short due to demands of the journal Linguistica Brunensia). Instead

of original pagination the full bibliographical titles are used and some articles

were updated or partly modified. The index is comprised of the Tocharian A

X


and B words only because a special comprehensive index-volume is planned.

The following volumes will continue in analogous style. Speed of preparation

will depend on author’s and editor’s working capacity, and availability of fi

nancial sources.

I am very indebted to John D. Bengtson for corrections of my English in all

parts of this book and to Dan Šlosar and Mgr. Radka Vyskočilová for kind help

with my first typesetting. Special thanks belong to the director of the MUNI

Press (Masaryk University Publishing House) PhDr. Alena Mizerová for ac

cepting the series to the academic publishing house. Printing costs of this vo

lume were kindly offered by Mr. Václav Švehla from PBTisk, s. r. o.

The editing work was finished during the time of my study stay at the National

University of Mongolia in Ulaanbaatar in September & October 2011.

Michal Schwarz

Contact information

In case of any suggestions, need for a printed version of this volume, informa

tion about possible sponsorship, etc., please do not hesitate to use the following

contacts:

Prof. RNDr. Václav Blažek, CSc.

blazek@phil.muni.cz

Mgr. Michal Schwarz

schwarz.michal@yahoo.com

Department of Linguistics and Baltic languages

Masaryk University – Faculty of Arts

Arna Nováka 1

602 00 Brno

Czech Republic

XI


Chronological list of all Tocharian articles of Václav Blažek with

editorial notes

1984

(1984): The Sino-Tibetan etymology of the Tocharian A mkow-, B moko “mon

key”? Archív orientální 52, 390-392. (This article is published in this volume

in its updated version = 1997c – see below.)

1988

(1988): Tocharian Linguistics During Last 25 Years. Archív orientální 56, 77-

81.

1991

(1991a): Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses I. Sl. *kъpъ : Toch. *kwip- “shame”. To

charian and Indo-European Studies 5, 123-128.

(1991b): Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses II. Sl. *čьlnъ : Toch. *kolmo- “ship”.

Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 5, 129-133.

1994

(1994): Sl. *čьlnъ “člun” a toch. *kolmo- “loď” (k terminologii pojmenování

plavidel v severoindoevropském areálu). Slavia 62, 489-492. (This Czech ver

sion of the article 1991b is not published in this volume.)

1995

(1995): Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses. Linguistica Baltica 4, 233-238.

1997

(1997a): Tocharian-Anatolian isoglosses (1-4). Tocharian and Indo-European

Studies 7, 229-233.

(1997b): It is possible to restore Tocharian A ku//// “nave, hub”? Tocharian and

Indo-European Studies 7, 234-235.

(1997c): The Tocharian word for”monkey” – inherited or borrowed? Tocha

rian and Indo-European Studies 7, 236-238. (This article is published instead

of its previous Czech version from 1984.)

(1997d): Praslav. *kъpъ ‘vulva’ ~ tox. *kwip- ‘styd’ – specifičeskaja slavjan

sko-toxarskaja izoglossa? Balto-slavjanskie issledovanija, 1997, 226-229.

(This Russian version of the article 1991a is not published in this volume.)

XII


1999

(1999a): Tocharian – Anatolian isoglosses II (5 – 6). Tocharian and Indo-Eu

ropean Studies 8, 75-78.

(1999b): Alimenta Tocharica (1 – 3). Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 8,

79-84.

(1999c): The Tocharian and Celtic “span”. Tocharian and Indo-European

Studies 8, 85-86.

2000

(2000): Toward the Cardinal Points in Tocharian. Tocharian and Indo-Euro

pean Studies 9, 29-32.

2001

(2001a): Tocharian A muk ‘yoke’ and A maku, B mekw pl. ‘(finger)nails’ – why

m? Historische Sprachforschung 114, 191-195.

(2001b): Tocharian AB kät- “to scatter”, its derivatives and relatives. Indoger

manische Forschungen 106, 81-83.

2003

(2003a): Slavic-Tocharian Isoglosses IV. Tocharian and Indo-European Stu

dies 10, 11-13.

(2003b): A Tocharian key to the etymology of the bird-name *srĝó- “stork”.

Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 10, 15-16.

2005

(2005): Tocharian A k

u

li, B klyiye “woman” < *ĝ/gleH

2

„i-H

1

en-? Historische

Sprachforschung 118, 92-100.

2007

(2007a – together with Michal Schwarz): Tocharové. Kdo byli, odkud přišli,

kde žili. Linguistica Brunensia. Sborník prací filozofické fakulty brněnské

univerzity A55, 85-113. (This article is published in this volume in its English

updated version = 2008b – see below.)

(2007b – together with Michal Schwarz): Pavel Poucha (1905-1986). Lingui

stica Brunensia. Sborník prací filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity A55,

322-325. Instead of this Czech article (not included in this volume) the new

English biography and bibliography of Pavel Poucha is published – see 2011e

below).

XIII


2008

(2008a – together with Michal Schwarz): Nástin tocharské historické grama

tiky. [“A sketch of the Tocharian historical grammar”]. Linguistica Brunensia.

Sborník prací filozofické fakulty brněnské univerzity, A56, 33-58. This article

was written for Czech readers; but for better reference: all Tocharian A and B

words reconstructed in this article were added to index.

(2008b – together with Michal Schwarz): Tocharians. Who they were, where

they came from and where they lived. Lingua Posnaniensis 50, 47-74.

2009

(2009): Tocharian ‘camel’. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 11, 39-42.

2011

(2011a – together with Michal Schwarz): Werner Winter (25.10. 1923 – 7.8.

2010). Linguistica Brunensia 59, 286-299. Instead of this Czech version an

English article 2011b is published in this volume.

(2011b – together with Michal Schwarz): Werner Winter. Journal of Indo-Eu

ropean Studies. 235-254. This article is included in this volume instead of its

Czech version = 2011a. For the version in this book we added full contents of

Winter’s Studia Tocharica from 1984 and Kleine Schriften = Selected Writings

I.+II. from 2005.

(2011c – together with Michal Schwarz): Tocharian AB kwär- ‘to grow old’.

Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 12, 57-62.

(2011d – together with Michal Schwarz): Tocharian AB kulyp- ‘to crave,

desire’ and the Indo-European root *leub

h

-. Indogermanische Forschungen

116, 72-86. This article will be published in one of future volumes because of

copyrights.

(2011e – together with Michal Schwarz): Pavel Poucha – his life, travels and

complete bibliography. In: Blažek, Václav. Tocharian Studies. Works 1. (ed.

Michal Schwarz). Brno: Masarykova univerzita/MUNI Press. 173-210.

XIV


I. Etymology


Tocharian Linguistics During the Last 25 Years. Archív orientální 56, 1988. 77-81.

Václav Blažek

Now we can find a complete survey of recent Tocharian research in the detailed study Die Erforschung des Tocharischen (1960-1984), Stuttgart, Steiner-Verlag Wiesbaden-GmbH 1985, ix, 187 pp., by a well-known specialist Werner Thomas.

The book is divided into the following parts: Vorwort (I-IX); Vorbemerkungen (1-6); A. Bibliographien (7); B. Allgemeine und zusammenfassende Werke (8-20); C. Die Sprache (20-125): I. Texte bzw. Textstellen und ihre Interpretation, II. Wörterbücher bzw. Glossare, III. Grammatik; D. Die sprachliche Stellung des Tocharischen (126-154): I. Verhältnis der beiden tocharischen Sprachen zueinander, II. Die indogermanischen Komponente, III. Die nichtindogermanischen Komponente; Schlussbemerkungen (155); Literaturverzeichnis (156-178); Abkürzungsverzeichnis (179-192); Nachträge aus dem Jahre 1984 (185-187).

The part Literaturverzeichnis catalogues 434 books, articles and reviews concerning Tocharian problems. Linguistic studies proper and reviews consist of 324 and 43 titles respectively (there are 8 more citations in the last part, Nachträge aus dem Jahre 1984). I think it will be useful to range authors according to the numbers of their original titles about the Tocharian language (total 324): Van Windekens 91, Thomas 44, Winter 20, Lane 13, Isebaert 13, Adams 9 (10 including supplements in the last part), Schmidt K. H. 8, Couvreur 7, Naert 7, Bonfante 5, Lindeman 4, Schmalstieg 4, Ji 4, Brock 4, Hilmarsson 4 (5), Čop 3, Ivănescu 3; 18 authors – 2 titles and 54 authors – 1 title.

It is difficult for the bibliographical study of such an extent to cover all published titles. The following titles can be added:

V. N. Toporov, “Toxarskaja ėtimologia za dvadcať let”. In: Ėtimologija 1963, Moskva 1963, pp. 236-249 ... (ad A);

V. V. Ivanov, “Funkcii”tocharskich” jazykov i “toxarskoj” literatury v Vostočnom Turkestane i problema tjurksko “toxarskich” kontaktov”. In: Centralnaja Azija i Tibet. Istoria i kuľtura Vostoka Azii, T. 1, Novosibirsk 1972 ... (ad B); 2

T. V. Gamkrelidze, V. V. Ivanov, Indoevropejskij jazyk i indoevropejcy. Tbilisi 1984 “Vydelenie toxarskogo iz obščeindoevropskogo jazyka i migracii nositelej toxarskich dialektov”, pp. 935-936) ... (ad D II.);

V. I. Georgiev, Introduction to the History of the Indo-European languages, Sofia 1981 (Chap. IX: “Tocharian and Balto-Slavic”, pp. 281-297) ... (ad D II.);

V. Blažek, “The Sino-Tibetan Etymology of the Tocharian A mkow-, B moko- ‘Monkey’”, Archív orientální 52 (1984), pp. 390-392 ... (ad D III., but reflected in Vorwort, p. X);

V. V. Ivanov, “K ėtimologii nekotorych migracionnych kuľturnych terminov”. In: Ėtimologija 1980, Moskva 1982 (7. Avstro-aziatskij istočnik tox. A oykaläm, B oykolmo ‘slon’, p. 166) ... (ad D III.);

V. V. Ivanov, “A korai ugor és az östokhár alapnyelv fonologiai”. Rendszerének párhuza mossága és ennek lehetséges diakrón megyarázata, Nyelvtudományi közlemények 85 (1983), pp. 357-359 ... (ad D III.). The Russian version of the last article was published in 1986: “Paralelizm fonologičeskich sistem raneugorskogo i oščetoxarskogo prajazykov i jego vozmožnoe diachroničeskoe objasnenie”. In: Fonetika jazykov Sibirii sopredeľnych regionov. Novosibirsk 1986, pp. 11-14.

It is also a pity that Thomas’ survey does not inventory the articles in which the name “Tocharian” does not appear their titles, e.g. E. Schwentner, “Khotansakisch sahä, sahe ‘Hase’”, Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung, Bd. 77 (1961), p. 160 (Toch. B [a[e “hare” borrowed from OInd. śaśa- id.) or V. V. Ivanov, “Mikenskoe grečeskoe wa-na-ka i ego indoevropejskie sootvetstvija”. In: Balkanskij lingvističeskij sbornik, Moskva 1976, pp. 165-171 (Toch. A ñkät, B ñakte “God”, A nātäk “lord”, nāśi “lady” and

Greek wanakt- “king”, *wanakya “queen” with detailed discussion and older

literature), etc.

The research of the last ten years has given precision to our notions about the place of Tocharian among the Indo-European languages, cf. Thomas pp. 128- 147. A. J. Van Windekens, the author of an excellent etymological dictionary of Tocharian, tallied isoglosses between Tocharian lexicon and lexicons of other Indo-European groups (Van Windekens 1976: 614-619). He obtained the following rank order: (1) Germanic, (2) Greek, (3) Indic, (4-5) Baltic and Iranian, (6) Latin, (7) Slavic, (8) Celtic, (9) Anatolian, (10) Armenian, (11) Albanian. D. Q. Adams (1984: 399-400) obtained a rather different rank order: (1) Germanic, (2) Greek, (3) Baltic, (4) Indic, (5) Slavic, (6-8) Latin + Celtic + Iranian, (9) Albanian, (10) Anatolian, (11) Armenian. But a different picture arises if we accept etymological interpretations other than those of A. J. Van Windekens.

3


Toch. A wär, B war “water” is usually connected with OInd. vZri “water, rain” etc. (Van Windekens 1976: 557). An alternative etymology derives PToch. *wär “water” from IE *wod3 (Normier 1980: 277). A similar phonological development is known, cf. A swār, B swāre “sweet” < *swādro- from IE root *swādu- (Normier 1980: 277; Thomas 1985: 58-59). Afterwards we obtain the Germanic-Anatolian-Tocharian isogloss instead of the Indic-Tocharian one.

Toch. B ālme “source, well” is analysed as the intensive prefix *ā- + *l

e

mo-s (Thomas 1985: 122). But it corresponds rather to ‘alteuropäische’ hy

dronyms *almā, *almos (Georgiev 1981: 171, 350-351). Cf. also Lith. almjti “to run; flow”, aNmė “pus” (Toporov 1975: 76-77); also Hit. alalam(m)a-, alalima- may belong here, if its meaning was “river-bed” (cf. Tischler 1977: 13).

Toch. A lu, B luwo “animal” is derived from IE *lāu- (Sl. *lovŭ “hunting”) or *lūs, *luw- “louse” (“animal”?) (Poucha 1955: 270; Pokorny 1959: 655, 692; the etymologies follow Van Windekens and Pedersen respectively), cf. also Hit. lalawes(s)a-/lalakwesa- “ant” (reduplication?; Čop 1972: 167). Now Gamkrelidze and Ivanov (1984: 507-510) present a new etymology for the IE designation of “lion”, cf. Germanic *liuwaz and Greek *lewont- (Mycenaean re-wo-te-jo and re-wo-pi). The relationship of Albanian letë (*leut-) “mane” and Sl. *ljutŭ “ferocious” borrowed into Lith. li ́tas “id.; lion” and even Hit. walwa-, walwi-, Luw. walwa- (reduplication: *lwalwa-?) are more problematic (Sumnikova 1986: 59-77). Ultimately a non-IE origin is not excluded either, cf. ST *lwa ̇y “buffalo” (Blažek 1984: 392).

Toch. AB pälk- “shine, burn; see” has been connected with IE *b

h

elg

(Greek φλέγω “I burn“, etc.) (Van Windekens 1976: 358). But pä- can be interpreted as the old imperative (originally perfective?) prefix (Van Windekens 1982: 233-236; Thomas 1985: 82-83). Consequently Toch. AB pälk- represents only an extended form of the verb AB läk- “see”, cf. the present stem A lka- (Poucha 1955: 266-267; Van Windekens 1982: 35).

The exclusive Tocharian-Anatolian isogloss A kast, B kest “hunger” and Hit. kast- id., kestwant- “hungry” (Van Windekens 1976: 189; Tischler 1982: 535-537; Thomas 1985: 145) can be complemented by Greek γαστήρ “belly”, if its original meaning was “hungry” (Watkins 1974: 14), cf. East Iranian (Pamir) forms as Sarikoli morz “hunger”, Waxi mərz id., Shughni mō¢j id., etc. and Avestan mərəzana- “belly” (Morgenstierne 1970: 337). A direct relation between Hit.-Toch. *kast- and Basque gose “hunger, hungry” proposed by Ivănescu (1969: 242-243) is excluded for geographical reasons. The missing link of comparison between Basque and Indo-European could be sought in North Caucasian as a possible relative of the hypothetical Mediterranean 4 substratum. In fact the form *gašē “hunger” (cf. Tabasaran gašti “hungry“) is reconstructed [Nikolayev & Starostin 1994, 431]. But the vector of borrowing was from IE into North Caucasian rather than the opposite direction (Nikolaev 1985: 62). And Basque gose may be of Romance origin (cf. Spanish gazuza “hunger” : gazuzo “very greedy, voracious”, see Löpelmann 1968: 463-464 [and Corominas 1990: 295]). Some scholars, e.g. John Bengtson (personal correspondence), preffer the opposite vector of borrowing.

Toch. A kroyse, B kroy(k)śe, acc. sg. krokś “be” is usually connected

with IE *#5s-en- “hornet” (Poucha 1955: 92 after Schrader; Pokorny 1959: 576). Van Windekens submitted a new interpretation – borrowing from ST *(s-)brəy “fly, bee” (Benedict 1972: 167, 177; Van Windekens 1965: 139-140; Van Win-dekens 1976: 627; Thomas 1985: 108), but this etymology is phonologically improbable. On the other hand, Sino-Tibetan influence is not really excluded, cf. ST *kray “mosquito” (Burm. khray, Kachin dźi-groy, where dźi

is “winged insect”, etc. – see Benedict 1972: 71). We would have to assume

a compound *kray-dźi (cf. Kachin) or the like. But the traditional Indo-Euro

pean etymology remains most probable; a missing Anatolian counterpart may

be indicated at least indirectly by the probable IE loan in Kartvelian: Georgian

“razana “wasp” (Klimov 1986: 198).

Several lexical borrowings from Sino-Tibetan (Chinese) were detected by Van

Windekens and Naert (Thomas 1985: 153; from earlier authors H. Lüders. Zur

Geschichte des ostasiatischen Tierkreises. Sitzungsberichte der Preusischen

Akademie der Wissenschaften 1933 must be named). But these relations are

bilateral and more intimate than they have shown. We have selected the fol

lowing comparisons as illustrations.

Toch. B plewe “boat” has a good IE etymology (Pokorny 1959: 835-

837). It was probably borrowed into ST languages, cf. Gurung (= Bodic divi

sion according to R. Schafer) plava “boat” and Arch. Chin. plyôg, Anc. Chin.

plyəw id. (Benedict 1972: 176 – in footnote 469 he compares them with Indo

nesian *parau id.; Ulving 1968/1969: 948 = IE + Chin.).

Toch. A kuryar, B karyar (*kwräyor) “business, purchase”, B käry

(*kwräy-) “to buy”, pres. med. kärnāsk- (*kwränāsk-), reflect IE *k

w

rey- “to

buy“ (Pokorny 1959: 648; Normier 1980: 257-258; Benveniste 1969: 129- 137 – also with Baltic and Slavic parallels). TB *kroy in Burm. krwè “debt”, Kachin khoi “borrow or lend (presupposes a return in kind” (Benedict 1972: 68; A. Gluhak in the letter from 19. VI. 1986 – ST + IE) could represent a Tocharian loanword.

5


Toch. AB pär- “bring, take” is derived from IE *bher- “bring” (Pokorný 1959: 128-132). The TB voiceless *p- in *par “trade, buy, sell” (Benedict 1972: 35) reveals Tocharian origin, although even Iranian influence is not excluded, cf. Avest. fra-bara “deliver, hand over”, Khwarezmian haβar- “give”, βar “get”, etc. (Levinton 1977: 21-23).

Toch. A oykaläm, B oykolmo “elephant” is analysed on the IE level as *ank- “to bend, curve, bow” and the suffixal extension *-ālimo-, cf. Toch. B onolme “man” (Van Windekens 1979: 24, 110). V. V. Ivanov, with reference to E. Sapir, connected this word with Tib. glay “elephant; ox” (Ivanov 1977: 156), which is probably related to Arch. Chin. zyay (*dzyay), according to P. Benedict from sgyay (Benedict 1976: 188), Burm. tshay, etc. (similar forms with initial affricate are known also from Austro-Asiatic languages – Benedict 1972: 133). Ivanov’s comparison does not explain Toch. oy-. An acceptable solution seems to be the alternative ST reconstruction for Tib. glay according to R. Shafer – ST composite *(n-)go-lay, cf. Tibetan dialect Tseku galon “bull”, and loan in the Dardic language Pashai go-lay “bull” (Shafer 1965: 459). This version can be modified. If the first component was ST *yə “tooth, tusk” (Shafer 1974: 36, 57, 162), the original composite was *yə-lay (> *gVlay) “tusked ox” (?) [further see Lushei y

c

y

c

o id., Kapwi ya “tooth”, Newari

ya-, Hwalngau hyau “eyetooth, tusk”, etc., maybe Arch. Chin. *yra besides ya and later ya “tooth, tusk, ivory”, Proto-Thai *ya “ivory” (Shafer 1974: 469, according to Haudricourt), Proto-Viet-Müöng *ya “ivory“ (Sokolovskaja 1978: 163) and Proto-Mnong (Bahnar) *ngo’la “tusk” (Norman & Mei 1976: 288). Later, V. V. Ivanov (1982: 166 - see above) connected Tocharian “elephant” directly with Austro-Asiatic “ivory” (in his article incorrectly “trunk of elephant”).]. But the above is questionable, if the transformation of the ST initial *y- in Toch. oy- is regular, cf. Toch. A nkiñc, B ñkante “silver” (n.), A nkäñci, B ñikañce “silver” (adj.), probably borrowed from a ST source close to Arch. Chin. yy¤n “silver” (which was a source of Proto-Thai *yə(ə)n id. and Proto-Miao-Yao *ńaan, var. *ń[ua]n id.), Burm. ywe, Gyarung payei, Tibetan dyul, Śerpa yul, etc., all from ST *(d-)yul “silver” (Van Windekens 1976: 634; Benedict 1972: 15, 173; Benedict 1976: 171; Shafer 1974: 36, 75, 96). A direct borrowing from Tibetan glay may be identified in Toch. A klayk, B kleyke “vehicle; saddle animal”, as already proposed by E. Sapir (1936: 264).

Toch. A śiśäk, B [ecake “lion”, A śiśak-śanwef “leaving the jaws of a lion” was analysed as a derivative of various IE roots, e.g. *seng- “attacher à” and Celtic *sogno- “poil the queue, brosse” (Van Windekens 1941: 120- 121), *sin‘

h

eko- “lion” with the suffix -ko- (Van Windekens 1964: 223-228;

Adams 1984b: 284-286: A śiśäk < säyśäke- < *sänśäke- < sänkyäke-, A śiśak < 6

*sänkyēke- and B [ecake < *[encake- < *syenśäke- < *sänśäke- < *sänkyäke-),

s÷t-e-ko- (> śiśäk), *s÷t-ē-ko (> śiśak) and *sēt-e-ko (> [ecake) in comparison

with Lat. saeta “mane, bristles, hosehair” (Van Windekens 1976: 480-481; Lat.

saeta corresponds to Hit. settis “Nackenmähne” [cf. J. Tischler 1982b: 123];

a semantic shift “mane” → “lion” is acceptable, but the etymology is impro

bable for phonological reasons). A source was also sought in Chinese (Middle)

syi-tsyə’ “lion” (Pelliot, Lüders). On the contrary E. G. Pulleyblank supposes

a borrowing from Tocharian into Chinese (Pulleyblank 1962/1963: 109). But

a ST origin is possible too: from a compound consisting of components cor

responding to ST *si “lion” and TB *zik “leopard” (Blažek 1984: 392). S. A.

Starostin, the author of a new reconstruction of the ST proto-language, modi

fied this source as *s-cik “leopard, lion” with the typical ST animal prefix s

(Starostin, March 1986 – personal communication).

Toch. B mewiyo (m.), mewiya (f.) “tiger” has been connected with

Sogdian myw and Sacan muya id. (Van Windekens 1941: 67 – Schwentner;

Van Windekens 1979: 9). All these words have a promising ST etymology

(Tocharian is a probable source of the Iranian designation of “tiger“), cf. Arch.

Chin. myau-, m5u- “wild cat” (Shi Jing), “cat” (Li Ji) borrowed into Thai mēw,

Shan miau, Ahom miu “cat”, further TB: Limbu mīyo-n “cat”, Lalung myaŏ,

Tengsa mĕy5ŭ, Pwo miayu, etc. (Shafer 1965: 464-465; Shafer 1974: 65, 278,

448). “Cat” and “tiger” are not so different in meaning, cf. Burm. kroy “cat”,

Maru rauy “wildcat”, and Nung khay “tiger”, Kachin roy, śəroy, śaro “tiger,

leopard”, TB *roy (Benedict 1972: 107). An excellent example of the semantic

shift “cat” → “tiger” may be found in the Munda languages. Santali ruzTa

“wild cat” is used in the forest as a taboo substitute for kul “tiger” and t%rup

“leopard”. Prakrit bheruzTa- “tiger” is probably formed from this Munda root

– cf. also Mundari ruzTā “wild cat” (Kuiper 1948: 151, footnote 48).

It is possible to conclude that the reviewed book excellently demonstrates

the progress in Tocharian etymology over the last 25 years. If Tocharian ety

mologies of the past were noted for their liberal interpretations of phonological

rules, contemporary Tocharists work with a more exact historical-comparative

method. Our examples were intended to show „the untapped reserve” in To

charian comparative linguistics: the old isoglosses with other Indo-European

languages and the areal relations with the neighbouring non-Indo-European

languages.

7 Abbreviations: Anc. Ancient, Arch. Archaic, Burm. Middle Burmese, cf. confront, Chin. Chinese, Germ. Germanic, Hit. Hittie, IE Indo-European, Lat. Latin, Lith. Lithuanian, Luw. Luwian, OInd. Old Indic, P Proto, Sl. Slavic, ST Sino-Tibetan, TB Tibeto-Burmic, Tib. Written Tibetan, Toch. Tocharian. Bibliography (excluding titles mentioned in the full form in the article): Adams, D. Q. 1984. The position of Tocharian among the Other Indo-Europe

an Languages. Journal of the American Oriental Society 104, 395-402. Adams, D. Q. 1984b. Tocharian A śiśäk, B secake, the Proto-Indo-European

word for ‘lion’. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung 97,

284-286. Benedict, P. K. 1972. Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus (ed. J. Matisoff). Cambridge. Benedict, P. K. 1976. Sino-Tibetan: Another Look. Journal of the American

Oriental Society 96 (1976). 167-197. Benveniste, E. 1969. Vocabulaire des institutions indoeuropéenes I. Paris. Corominas, J. 1990. Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua Castellana

5

:

Madrid. Čop, B. 1972. Indouralica II. Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher 44 (1972). 162-178. Ivănescu, G. 1969. Un élément japhetique en hittite et en tokharien: hittite

kašts ‘faim, famine’, tokh. A kast, B kest ‘faim’. Studia et Acta Orien

talia 2 (1969[60]). 242-243.

Ivanov, V. V. 1977. Nazvanija slona v jazykach Evrazii. 1-3. Ėtimologija 1975.

Moskva, 1977. 148-161. Klimov, G. A. 1986. Vvedenie v kavkazskoe jazykoznanie. Moscow. Kuiper, F. R. I. 1948. Proto-Munda Words in Sanskrit. Amsterdam. Levinton, G. A. 1977. Iz indoevropejskoj terminologii obmena. In: Nostratičes

kie jazyki i nostratičeskoe jazykoznanie. Moscow. 21-23. Löpelmann, M. 1968. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der baskischen Sprache.

Berlin. Lüders, H. 1933. Zur Geschichte des ostasiatischen Tierkreises. Sitzungs

berichte der Preusischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 1933, 998-

1022.

Morgenstierne, G. 1970. The Development of Iranian r + Consonant in the

Shughni Group. In: W. B. Henning Memorial Volume. London: Asia

Major Library. 1970. 334-342.

Nikolaev, S. L. 1985. Severokavkazskie zaimstvovanija v xettskom i drevne

grečeskom. In: Drevniaja Anatolia. Moskva 1985. 60-73. 8



       
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