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Superior Responsibility in International Criminal Law - Ondřej Svaček; M. Chadimová; Ivana Procházková

Superior Responsibility in International Criminal Law
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Kniha: Superior Responsibility in International Criminal Law
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The book analyzes traditional form of responsibility applicable in proceedings before the international criminal courts and tribunals according to which commander/superior is held responsible for ... (celý popis)
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Specifikace
Nakladatelství: » Leges
Médium / forma: Tištěná kniha
Rok vydání: 201711
Počet stran: 200
Rozměr: 208,0x148,0x11,0 mm
Úprava: tran
Hmotnost: 0,252kg
Jazyk: anglicky
Vazba: Brožovaná bez přebalu lesklá
ISBN: 978-80-7502-251-6
EAN: 9788075022516
Ukázka: » zobrazit ukázku
Popis

The book analyzes traditional form of responsibility applicable in proceedings before the international criminal courts and tribunals according to which commander/superior is held responsible for failure to prevent or repress crimes under international law committed by his/her subordinates.

In chronological order, the book addresses controversial origins of this doctrine and relevant case-law adopted until recently before the ad hoc tribunals, the International Criminal Court and some hybrid tribunals (mostly the ECCC). The book focuses both on material and procedural aspects of the doctrine. The procedural aspects are analyzed in relation to legal framework applicable before the ICC. The book elaborates on closely watched Regulation 55 which permits change in legal characterization of facts to accord with crimes in the subject-matter jurisdiction of the Court, or with the form of responsibility envisaged in the Statute. The book explores the consistency of this rule with statutory provisions concerning prosecutorial independence and the accused person's right to fair trial and contributes to better understanding between different forms of responsibility (Article 25 and Article 28 of the ICC Statute) and different subcategories of the superior responsibility itself.

Finally, the book addresses various standards of proof envisaged in the text of the Rome Statute. The aim of the last chapter is to find out, what exactly is covered by these standards in relation to the doctrine of superior responsibility and what exactly the Prosecutor has to establish in various stages of the proceedings before the ICC.

The book is proposed to serve both to scholars and practitioners in area of international (criminal) law.

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5

CONTENT

Authorship ........................................................................................................... 8

List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................... 9

Introduction ......................................................................................................... 11

1. Superior Responsibility and International Law ....................................... 15

1.1 Development of the Doctrine of Superior Responsibility ................... 17

1.1.1 Roots of Superior Responsibility .................................................. 18

1.1.2 From Yamashita to the First Codi! cation ................................... 20

1.1.2.1 Yamashita Case .................................................................. 20

1.1.2.2 Nuremberg Trials .............................................................. 23

1.1.2.3 Tokyo ................................................................................... 25

1.1.2.4 Period until 1977 ............................................................... 26

1.1.3 Codi! cation Period: 1991–2008 ................................................... 29

1.2 Superior Responsibility and Other Forms of Responsibility

for Crimes under International Law ...................................................... 32

2. Elements of Superior Responsibility with the Focus on the case-law

of the ICTY and the ICTR ............................................................................. 40

2.1 Underlying Crime ..................................................................................... 41

2.2 Superior-Subordinate Relationship ........................................................ 46

2.3 Mens Rea .................................................................................................... 49

2.4 Actus Reus ................................................................................................. 54

2.5 Summary .................................................................................................... 57

3. ! e Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia .................... 59

3.1 Statutory development ............................................................................. 59

3.2 ECCC Statute ............................................................................................ 62

3.3 ECCC Jurisprudence ................................................................................ 63

3.3.1 Case 001 (Kaing Guek Eav) ........................................................... 64

3.3.2 Case 002 (Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan) ..................................... 66

3.4 Summary .................................................................................................... 70

4. International Criminal Court ..................................................................... 71

4.1 Applicable Law .......................................................................................... 72

4.1.1 Forms of Individual Criminal Responsibility ............................. 74 Content 4.2 Statutory Development of Superior Responsibility before

the ICC ....................................................................................................... 75

4.2.1 Elements of Superior Responsibility under the ICC Statute ..... 78

4.2.1.1 Superior-Subordinate Relationship ................................. 79

4.2.1.2 Mens Rea ............................................................................ 83

4.2.1.3 Actus Reus .......................................................................... 89

4.2.1.3.1 Successor Superior Responsibility .................. 91

4.2.1.4 Requirement of Causality ................................................. 100

4.2.1.4.1 ICTY Jurisprudence on a Causality

Requirement ....................................... ............... 101

4.2.1.4.2 ICC’s Approach ................................................. 103

4.3 Summary .................................................................................................... 107

5. Regulation 55: A False Friend of Justice? ................................................... 110

5.1 General Introduction to Regulation 55 ................................................. 111

5.2 Travaux Préparatoires ............................................................................... 113

5.3 Legitimacy of the Provision ..................................................................... 114

5.3.1 Vote for: End to Impunity ............................................................. 114

5.3.2 Vote against: Routine Functioning and Systematics

of the Statute .................................................................................... 115

5.3.3 Judicial E" ciency and Economy v. Legal Certainty .................. 118

5.4 Interfered Rules of the Rome Statute ..................................................... 120

5.4.1 Applicable Law and Inherent Powers (Article 21) ..................... 120

5.4.2 Rights of the Prosecutor and the Chambers (Articles 42,

54 and 61) ........................................................................................ 122

5.4.3 Rights of the accused (Article 67) ................................................ 126

5.4.4 Requisites of the TCH’s decision [Article 74 (2)] ....................... 132

5.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................. 135

6. Standards of Proof: What & When to Prove before the ICC .................. 137

6.1 Articles 15 and 53: Initiation of an Investigation and Prosecution .... 137

6.1.1 Procedural Importance .................................................................. 139

6.1.2 Content of the Standard: Reasonable Basis to Proceed ............. 142

6.1.2.1 Reasonable Basis to Believe that a Crime within

the Jurisdiction Occurred ................................................ 144

6.1.2.1.1 Jurisprudence .................................................... 145

6.1.3 Content of the Standard: Su" cient Basis for a Prosecution ..... 148 6.2 Article 58: Issuance of a Warrant of Arrest or a Summons

to Appear ................................................................................................... 151

6.2.1 Procedural Importance .................................................................. 151

7

Content

6.2.2 Content of the Standard: Reasonable Grounds to Believe ........ 154

6.2.2.1 Jurisprudence ..................................................................... 156

6.3 Article 61: Con! rmation of the Charges before Trial .......................... 160

6.3.1 Procedural Importance .................................................................. 160

6.3.2 Content of the Standard ................................................................ 164

6.3.2.1 Jurisprudence ..................................................................... 165

6.3.2.1.1 Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo

(ICC- 01/05-01/08) ........................................... 165

6.3.2.1.2 Bosco Ntaganda (ICC-01/04-02/06) .............. 167

6.3.2.1.3 Laurent Gbagbo (ICC-02/11-01/11) .............. 170

6.4 Article 66: Beyond Reasonable Doubt ................................................... 172

6.4.1 Procedural Importance .................................................................. 172

6.4.2 Content of the Standard ................................................................ 174

6.4.2.1 Jurisprudence ..................................................................... 177

6.4.2.1.1 Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo

(ICC- 01/05-01/08) ........................................... 177

Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 183

Abstract ................................................................................................................. 188

Sources and Literature ....................................................................................... 189

Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 189

Case law ............................................................................................................ 194

Other Sources ................................................................................................... 199



       
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