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Kniha: Memorix anatomy

Memorix anatomy

Kniha: Memorix anatomy

The world’s newest comprehensive book of human anatomy with complete English and Latin terminology. Memorix Anatomy is a perfect example of a student-friendly textbook with a modern design and ... (celý popis)
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Specifikace
Nakladatelství: TRITON
Médium / forma: Tištěná kniha
Rok vydání: 201709
Rozměr: 249,0x190,0x35,0 mm
Úprava: xvii, 611 stran : ilustrace (převážně barevné)
Vydání: 2nd edition
Spolupracovali: illustrations: Jan Balko, Šárka Zavázalová, Radovan Hudák
Hmotnost: 1,427kg
Jazyk: anglicky
ISBN: 978-80-7553-415-6
EAN: 9788075534156
Ukázka: » zobrazit ukázku
Popis

The world’s newest comprehensive book of human anatomy with complete English and Latin terminology. Memorix Anatomy is a perfect example of a student-friendly textbook with a modern design and didactic approach. Written by medical students, anatomists and medical doctors, this textbook summarizes important information from general, special and topographic anatomy. All the important anatomical facts and principles are covered in this 600-page text, supported by 1500 simple illustrative schemes. The original Memorix educational system has been created in collaboration with experts in adult learning and implemented in this book.
More information and sample of book at www.anatomie.memorix.cz (entire human anatomy in English and Latin)

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Contents

Foreword or Why is Memorix Anatomy revolutionary?.....................................................................................................................................................................................XII

Memorix Education System......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................XV

Acknowledgements to co-workers......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... XVI

Acknowledgements to student organisations...................................................................................................................................................................................................XVIII

Memorix team.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................XX

I General anatomy

1 Definitions and history........................................................................................2

2 Terms and abbreviations.....................................................................................3

3 Histology.................................................................................................................4

4 Embryology.............................................................................................................5

5 Anatomical changes in childhood......................................................................6

6 Anatomical changes in puberty.........................................................................7

7 Planes and lines of the human body.................................................................8

8 Terms of location and direction of the human body.....................................9

9 Parts of the human body.................................................................................10

10 Regions of the human body.............................................................................11

11 Eponyms...............................................................................................................12

12 Review questions and figures..........................................................................14

13 Acknowledgements and references..............................................................16

1 General overview................................................................................................18

2 Skull - Cranium.................................................................................................... 21

2.1 Frontal bone - Os frenate.......................................................................22

2.2 Occipital bone - Os occipitale................................................................23

2.3 Sphenoidal bone (sphenoid) - Os sphenoidale..................................24

2.4 Parietal bone - Os parietale....................................................................26

2.5 Temporal bone - Os temporale..............................................................27

2.6 Ethmoidal bone (ethmoid) - Os ethmoidale......................................30

2.7 Inferior nasal concha - Concha nasalis inferior..................................30

2.8 Lacrimal bone, nasal bone and vomer

- Os lacrimale, os nasale et vomer.........................................................31

2.9 Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum........................................................31

2.10 Palatine bone - Os palatinum................................................................32

2.11 M axilla-Maxilla........................................................................................33

2.12 Mandible - Mandibula..............................................................................34

2.13 Hyoid bone - Os hyoideum.....................................................................35

2.14 Skull of a newborn....................................................................................35

2.15 Skull anthropometry.................................................................................36

3 Vertebral column - Columna vertebralis.......................................................37

3.1 Cervical vertebrae - Vertebrae cervicales............................................38

3.2 Thoracic vertebrae - Vertebrae thoracicae..........................................39

3.3 Lumbar vertebrae - Vertebrae lumbales..............................................39

3.4 Sacrum and coccyx - Os sacrum et os coccygis..................................40

4 Thorax - Thorax..................................................................................................41

5 Bones of the upper limb - Ossa membri superioris..................................42

5.1 Clavicle (collarbone) - Clavicula.............................................................42

5.2 Scapula (shoulder blade) - Scapula......................................................43

5.3 Humerus - Humerus................................................................................44

5.4 Ulna (elbow bone) - Ulna.......................................................................45

5.5 Radius (radial bone) - Radius.................................................................46

5.6 Bones of the hand - Ossa manus...........................................................47

6 Bones of the lower limb - Ossa membri inferioris....................................48

6.1 Pelvis - Pelvis.............................................................................................49

6.1.1 Hip bone (pelvic bone) - Os coxae...........................................50

6.2 Femur (thigh bone) - Femur...................................................................52

6.3 Patella (kneecap) - Patella......................................................................53

6.4 Tibia (shinbone) - Tibia............................................................................53

6.5 Fibula (calf bone) - Fibula.......................................................................54

6.6 Bones of foot - Ossa pedis......................................................................54

7 Figures ...........................................................................................................57

7.1 Cranial base................................................................................................57

8 Tables ............................................................................................................58

8.1 Openings of the skull and their content...............................................58

8.2 Structures of the upper limb..................................................................60

8.3 Structures of the lower limb...................................................................62

9 Review questions and figures.........................................................................64

10 Acknowledgements and references..........................................................66

Joints

1 General overview................................................................................................68

1.1 General organisation of the synovial joint..........................................69

2 Joints of the skull - Juncturae c ra n ii..............................................................72

3 Vertebral joints - Juncturae columnae v e rte b ra lis.....................................73

3.1 Vertebral synovial joints - Articulationes columnae ve rte b ra lis .....74

4 Thoracic joints - Juncturae thoracis............................................................... 75

5 Joints of the upper limb - Juncturae m em bri superioris...........................76

5.1 Sternoclavicular joint - A rticulatio sternoclavicularis........................76

5.2 Acromioclavicular joint - A rticulatio acrom ioclavicularis.................76

5.3 Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint

-A rtic u la tio hum eri (glenohum eralis)....................................................77

5.4 Elbow joint - A rticulatio c u b iti................................................................ 78

5.5 Distal radio-ulnar joint and radio-ulnar syndesmosis

- A rticulatio radioulnaris distalis et syndesmosis radioulnaris.........79

5.6 Wrist joint - A rticulatio radiocarpalis.....................................................79

5.7 Joints of the hand - Articulationes manus...........................................80

6 Joints of the lower limb - Juncturae mem bri inferioris.............................82

6.1 Sacro-iliac joint - A rticulatio sacroiliaca.............................................82

6.2 Synarthroses of the pelvic girdle - Synarthroses cinguli pelvici.....82

6.3 Hip joint - A rticulatio coxae..................................................................83

6.4 Knee joint-A rtic u la tio genus................................................................ 84

6.5 Tibiofibular joint - Articulatio tib io fib u la ris.........................................86

6.6 Interosseous membrane of the leg and tibiofibular syndesmosis

- Membrana interossea cruris et syndesmosis tib io fib u la ris...........86

6.7 Joints of the foot - Articulationes p e d is.............................................86

6.7.1 Arches of the foot..........................................................................86

7 Tables...................................................................................................................90

7.1 Movements of the head, neck

and temporomandibular joint (muscles).............................................90

7.2 Movements of the limbs (degree o f fre e d o m )....................................91

7.3 Movements of the upper limb (muscles).............................................92

7.4 Movements of the lower limb (muscles)..............................................93

8 Review questions and figures.........................................................................94

9 Acknowledgements and references..............................................................96


Contents

Muscles

1 General overview................................................................................................98

2 Muscles of the head - Musculi cranii..........................................................102

2.1 Facial muscles - Musculi faciei.............................................................102

2.2 Masticatory muscles - Musculi masticatorii.......................................108

2.3 Fasciae of the head..................................................................................109

3 Muscles of the neck - Musculi colli............................................................110

3.1 Superficial muscle group - Musculi colli superficiales.....................I l l

3.2 Suprahyoid muscles - Musculi suprahyoidei......................................112

3.3 Infrahyoid muscles - Musculi infrahyoidei.........................................113

3.4 Scaleni - Musculi scaleni...........................................................................114

3.5 Deep muscle group - Musculi colli profundi......................................115

3.6 Cervical fascia - Fascia cervicalis..........................................................115

4 Muscles of the back - Musculi dorsi...........................................................116

4.1 Superficial layer (spinohumeral muscles)..........................................117

4.2 2nd layer (spinoscapular muscles).........................................................118

4.3 3rd layer (spinocostal muscles)...............................................................118

4.4 Muscles of the back proper - Musculi dorsi proprii..........................119

4.5 Fasciae of the back....................................................................................123

5 Muscles of the thorax - Musculi thoracis....................................................124

5.1 Muscles of the thorax-thoracohumeral muscles............................125

5.2 Muscles of the thorax proper................................................................126

5.3 Diaphragm - Diaphragma........................................................................127

5.4 Fasciae of the thorax................................................................................127

6 Muscles of the abdomen - Musculi abdominis........................................128

6.1 Anterior group........................................................................................... 128

6.2 Lateral group...............................................................................................129

6.3 Posterior group..........................................................................................130

6.4 Fasciae of the abdomen...........................................................................130

7 Pelvic diaphragm / pelvic floor - Diaphragma pelvis..............................131

7.1 Fasciae of the pelvis.................................................................................132

8 Muscles of the upper limb - Musculi membri superioris........................133

8.1 Muscles of the shoulder joint................................................................133

8.2 Muscles of the arm - Musculi brachii....................................................134

8.3 Muscles of the forearm - Musculi antebrachii...................................136

8.3.1 Anterior group..................................................................................137

8.3.2 Lateral group.....................................................................................139

8.3.3 Posterior group.................................................................................140

8.4 Muscles of the hand - Musculi manus................................................142

8.4.1 Muscles of the thenar eminence (thumb group)...................143

8.4.2 Muscles of the hypothenar eminence (little finger group)... 144

8.4.3 Interossei and lumbricals...................................................,........145

8.5 Tendinous sheaths of the upper limb

- Vaginae tendinum membri superioris...............................................146

8.6 Fasciae of the upper limb.........................................................................147

9 Muscles of the lower limb - Musculi membri inferioris.......................148

9.1 Muscles of the hip joint..........................................................................148

9.1.1 Anterior group..................................................................................149

9.1.2 Posterior group.................................................................................150

9.2 Muscles of the thigh - Musculi femoris................................................152

9.2.1 Anterior group..................................................................................153

9.2.2 Medial group....................................................................................154

9.2.3 Posterior group.................................................................................155

9.3 Muscles of the leg - Musculi cruris......................................................156

9.3.1 Anterior group..................................................................................157

9.3.2 Lateral group.....................................................................................157

9.3.3 Posterior group.................................................................................158

9.4 Muscles of the foot - Musculi pedis.....................................................160

9.4.1 Dorsal group.....................................................................................161

9.4.2 Medial group (group of the great toe).........................................161

9.4.3 Lateral group (group of the little toe)..........................................162

9.4.4 Middle group....................................................................................162

9.4.5 Interossei and lumbricals...............................................................163

9.5 Tendinous sheaths of the lower limb

- Vaginae tendinum membri inferioris................................................164

9.6 Fasciae of the lower limb.........................................................................165

10 Review questions and figures.......................................................................166

11 Acknowledgements and references............................................................168

5

Digestive system 169

1 General overview............................................................................................. 170

2 Oral cavity - Cavitas o ris ................................................................................. 172

2.1 Cheek-B u c c a ............................................................................................ 172

2.2 Lips - Labia o ris .......................................................................................... 173

2.3 Gum-G in g iv a ............................................................................................ 173

2.4 Teeth - Dentes........................................................................................... 174

2.5 Tongue - Lingua......................................................................................... 176

2.6 Palate-P a la tu m ........................................................................................ 178

2.6.1 Hard palate - Palatum d u ru m ........................................................178

2.6.2 Soft palate - Palatum m o lle ...........................................................179

2.7 Palatine tonsil - Tonsilla p a la tin a ...........................................................178

2.8 Salivary glands - Glandulae salivariae...................................................180

3 Pharynx - Pharynx............................................................................................ 182

4 Oesophagus - Oesophagus.............................................................................185

5 Stomach - Gaster.............................................................................................. 186

6 Small intestine - Intestinum te n u e...............................................................188

6.1 Duodenum - Duodenum..........................................................................188

6.2 Jejunum and ileum - Jejunum et ileum...............................................190

7 Large intestine - Intestinum crassum...........................................................191

7.1 Caecum - Caecum......................................................................................192

7.1.1 Vermiform appendix - Appendix vermiformis...........................193

7.2 Colon-Colon..............................................................................................193

7.2.1 Ascending colon - Colon ascendens.............................................193

7.2.2 Transverse colon - Colon transversum........................................194

7.2.3 Descending and sigmoid colon

- Colon descendens et sigmoideum.............................................194

7.3 Rectum - Rectum........................................................................................195

8 Liver - Hepar......................................................................................................196

9 Gallbladder-Vesica biliaris/fellea.................................................................199

10 Pancreas - Pancreas..........................................................................................200

11 Peritoneum - Peritoneum................................................................................201

12 Review questions and figures.........................................................................202

13 Acknowledgements and references.............................................................204

6

Respiratory system 205

1 General overview............................................................................................. 206

2 Nose - Nasus.....................................................................................................206

3 Nasal cavity - Cavitas nasi............................................................................... 207

4 Paranasal sinuses - Sinus paranasales..........................................................208

5 Pharynx - Pharynx............................................................................................ 209

6 Larynx - Larynx..................................................................................................210

7 Trachea-T ra che a.............................................................................................214

8 Bronchi - Bronchi..............................................................................................215

9 Lungs - Pulmones..............................................................................................216

10 Pleura - Pleura...................................................................................................220

11 Mechanics of breathing movements............................................................221

12 Tables - Laryngeal muscles by function.......................................................222

13 Review questions and figures.........................................................................222

14 Acknowledgements and references.............................................................224


Contents

Urinary system

1 General overview................................................................................................226

2 Kidneys - Renes................................................................................................... 227

3 Renal pelvis and renal calices - Pelvis renalis et calices renales..............230

4 Ureter - Ureter.....................................................................................................230

5 Urinary bladder - Vesica urinaria...................................................................231

6 Female urethra - Urethra feminina................................................................233

7 Dynamics of micturition..................................................................................233

8 Review questions and figures.........................................................................234

9 Acknowledgements and references.............................................................236

6

Genital system

1 Development of the genital system..............................................................238

2 Male genital system - Organa genitalia m asculina.....................................239

2.1 Testis - Testis...............................................................................................240

2.2 Epididymis - Epididym is...........................................................................242

2.3 Ductus deferens - Ductus d e fere n s.......................................................243

2.4 Spermatic cord - Funiculus sperm aticus...............................................243

2.5 Seminal glands - Glandulae vesiculosae...............................................244

2.6 Bulbo-urethral glands - Glandulae bulbourethrales..........................244

2.7 Prostate - Prostata....................................................................................245

2.8 Scrotum- S c r o tu m .....................................................................................246

2.9 Penis- P e n is ................................................................................................ 247

2.10 Male urethra - Urethra m asculina.........................................................248

3 Female genital system - Organa genitalia fe m in in a ...................................249

3.1 Ovary - O va riu m .........................................................................................250

3.2 Uterine/Fallopian tube - Tuba uterina F alloppii................................251

3.3 Uterus - Uterus........................................................................................... 252

3.4 Vagina - Vagina........................................................................................... 254

3.5 Female external genitalia (vulva)

- Organa genitalia fem inina externa (vulva).........................................255

4 Perineum and its muscles - Perineum et musculi p e rin e i........................256

5 Anatomy in pregnancy.....................................................................................257

6 Fetal membranes, placenta and umbilical cord.........................................258

7 Fetal anatomy and anatomy of labour.........................................................259

8 Review questions and figures.........................................................................260

9 Acknowledgements and references..............................................................262

Heart and blood vessels 263

1 General overview of the blood vessels........................................................264

2 General overview of the heart........................................................................265

3 Heart - Cor .......................................................................................................... 266

3.1 Right atrium - Atrium dextrum...............................................................268

3.2 Right ventricle - Ventriculus dexter.......................................................269

3.3 Left atrium - Atrium sinistrum.................................................................270

3.4 Left ventricle - Ventriculus sinister.........................................................271

3.5 Valves-Valvae..............................................................................................272

3.6 Cardiac skeleton - Skeleton cordis.........................................................273

3.7 Conducting system of the heart - Complexus stimulans cordis.......273

3.8 Fetal circulation........................................................................................... 274

3.9 Coronary arteries - Arteriae coronariae.................................................275

3.10 Veins of the heart - Venae cordis.........................................................275

3.11 Clinical anatomy of the heart................................................................276

4 Arteries - Arteriae...............................................................................................277

4.1 Aorta - Aorta................................................................................................277

4.2 Ascending aorta and aortic arch

- Aorta ascendens et arcus aortae..........................................................277

4.3 Common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis..........................278

4.4 External carotid artery - Arteria carotis externa.................................278

4.4.1 External carotid artery - ventral and medial branches........279

4.4.2 External carotid artery - dorsal branches.................................280

4.4.3 Superficial temporal artery

- Arteria temporalis superficialis..................................................280

4.4.4 Maxillary artery - Arteria maxillaris...........................................281

4.5 Subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia.....................................................282

4.5.1 Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis..........................................282

4.5.2 Subclavian artery - other branches...........................................283

4.6 Axillary artery - Arteria axillaris..............................................................284

4.7 Brachial artery - Arteria brachialis.........................................................284

4.8 Radial and ulnar arteries and superficial and deep palmar arches

- Arteria radialis et ulnaris, arcus palmaris superficialis et profundus. 285

4.9 Thoracic aorta - Aorta thoracica..............................................................286

4.10 Abdominal aorta - Aorta abdominalis................................................287

4.10.1 Coeliac trunk - Truncus coeliacus............................................288

4.10.2 Inferior and superior mesenteric artery

- Arteria mesenterica superior et inferior.............................289

4.11 Common iliac artery - Arteria iliaca communis................................290

4.11.1 Internal iliac artery (parietal branches)

- Arteria iliaca interna.................................................................290

4.11.2 Internal iliac artery (visceral branches)

-Arteria iliaca interna.................................................................291

4.11.3 External iliac artery - Arteria iliaca externa..........................291

4.12 Femoral and popliteal artery

- Arteria fermoralis et arteria poplitea.................................................292

4.13 Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

- Arteria tibialis anterior et posterior...................................................293

5 Veins-Venae..................................................................................................... 294

5.1 Superior vena cava - Vena cava superior..............................................294

5.2 Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna......................................295

5.3 External jugular vein - Vena jugularis externa.....................................296

5.4 Subclavian and axillary veins

- Vena subclavia et vena axillaris.............................................................296

5.5 Veins of the upper limb - Venae membri superioris..........................297

5.6 Inferior vena cava - Vena cava inferior.................................................297

5.7 Portal vein - Vena portae.........................................................................298

5.8 Porto-caval anastomoses.........................................................................299

5.9 Cavo-caval anastomoses..........................................................................299

5.10 Common iliac vein - Vena iliaca communis.......................................300

5.10.1 Internal iliac vein - Vena iliaca interna....................................300

5.10.2 External iliac vein - Vena iliaca externa...................................301

5.11 Veins of the lower limb - Venae membri inferioris..........................301

6 Schemes .........................................................................................................302

6.1 Schemes of the heart................................................................................302

6.2 Schemes of arteries................................................................................... 304

6.3 Schemes of veins........................................................................................310

7 Tables

7.1 Tables of perforators - Venae perforantes........................................311

8 Review questions and figures.........................................................................314

9 Acknowledgements and references..............................................................316


Contents

Lymphatic and immune systems

1 General overview.............................................................................................318

2 Lymphatic vessels - Vasa lymphoidea...........................................................319

3 Thymus - Thymus.............................................................................................320

4 Bone marrow - Medulla ossium....................................................................320

5 Spleen - Splen (lien)........................................................................................ 321

6 Tonsils - Tonsillae.............................................................................................322

7 Non-encapsulated lymphoid tissue..............................................................323

8 Lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei (nodi lymphatici, lymphonodi)............323

8.1 Lymph nodes of the head - Nodi lymphoidei capitis........................324

8.2 Lymph nodes of the neck - Nodi lymphoidei colli............................324

8.3 Lymph nodes of the upper limb

-Nodi lymphoidei membri superioris..................................................325

8.4 Thoracic lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei thoracis...........................326

8.5 Abdominal lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei abdom inis..................327

8.6 Pelvic lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei pelvis....................................328

8.7 Lymph nodes of the lower limb

- Nodi lymphoidei m em bri inferioris.....................................................328

8.8 Sentinel lymph nodes of the respiratory and digestive system 329

8.9 Sentinel lymph nodes of the urinary and genital system...............330

9 Schemes..........................................................................................................331

9.1 Lymphatic drainage of the abdomen and pelvis (lymph nodes).... 331

9.2 Lymphatic drainage of the abdomen

and pelvis (lymphatic tru n k s ).................................................................331

10 Review questions and figures.........................................................................332

11 Acknowledgements and references.............................................................334

Peripheral nervous system

11

1 General overview............................................................................................336

1.1 General structure of the spinal nerve.................................................337

1.2 Reflex arch...............................................................................................338

2 Spinal nerves - Nervi spinales....................................................................... 339

2.1 Cervical plexus - Plexus cervicalis (C1-C4).........................................340

2.2 Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis (C4-T1).........................................342

2.2.1 Supraclavicular part of the brachial plexus.............................342

2.2.2 Infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus...............................343

2.3 Thoracic nerves - Nervi thoracici (T1-T12).........................................346

2.4 Lumbar plexus - Plexus lumbalis (T12-L4)..........................................346

2.5 Sacral plexus - Plexus sacralis (L4-S4).................................................348

2.6 Dermatomes and myotomes................................................................350

2.7 Peripheral nerve fields - Areae nervinae.............................................351

3 Cranial nerves - Nervi craniales....................................................................352

3.1 N. I Olfactory nerve - Nervus olfactorius...........................................354

3.2 N. Il Optìc nerve-Nervus opticus........................................................354

3.3 N. Ill Oculomotor nerve - Nervus o culom otorius.............................355

3.4 N. IV Trochlear nerve - Nervus tro ch le a ris........................................355

3.5 N. V Trigeminal nerve - Nervus trig e m in u s.......................................356

3.6 N. VI Abducent / Abducens nerve - Nervus abducens....................360

3.7 N. VII Facial nerve - Nervus facialis.....................................................360

3.8 N.VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve - Nervus vestibulocochlearis.......362

3.9 N. IX Glossopharyngeal nerve - Nervus glossopharyngeus............363

3.10 N. X Vagus nerve - Nervus vagus........................................................364

3.11 N. XI Accessory nerve - Nervus accessorius.....................................366

3.12 N. XII Hypoglossal nerve - Nervus hypoglossus...............................366

4 Autonomic nervous system (ANS).................................................................367

4.1 Sympathetic part - Pars sympathica.....................................................368

4.2 Parasympathetic part - Pars parasympathica.....................................371

4.3 Mixed autonomic plexuses ...................................................................372

4.4 Enteric nervous system...........................................................................374

5 Schemes..............................................................................................................375

5.1 Scheme of the peripheral nervous system..........................................375

5.2 Cervical plexus......................................................................................... 375

5.3 Brachial plexus......................................................................................... 376

5.4 Brachial plexus - final branches...........................................................376

5.5 Lumbar and sacral plexus......................................................................378

5.6 Sacral plexus - branches.........................................................................379

5.7 N. I, II, III, IV, VI......................................................................................... 380

5.8 N. V..............................................................................................................381

5.9 N. VII, Vili, IX.............................................................................................382

5.10 N.X, XI, Xll.................................................................................................383

5.11 Parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation of the head...........384

6 Review questions and figures.........................................................................385

7 Acknowledgements and references.............................................................388


Contents

1 2 Central nervous system 389

1 General overview............................................................................................390

1.1 Microscopic structure - neurons...........................................................390

1.2 Microscopic structure - neuroglia.........................................................391

1.3 Distribution of white and grey matter................................................391

1.4 Nervous system development................................................................392

1.5 Brain development...................................................................................393

1.6 Nervous tracts - Tractus nervosi.............................................................394

1.7 Directions, planes and special terms of the CNS..............................395

1.8 Function of the CNS..................................................................................396

2 Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis........................................................................398

2.1 Spinal cord - white and grey matter...................................................400

3 Brainstem - Truncus encephali.....................................................................402

3.1 Medulla oblongata - Medulla oblongata.............................................404

3.2 Pons - Pons................................................................................................406

3.3 Midbrain - Mesencephalon....................................................................408

3.4 Cranial nerves nuclei................................................................................410

3.5 Tracts of the cranial nerves....................................................................411

3.6 Nuclei of the brainstem...........................................................................412

3.7 Tracts of the brainstem............................................................................413

4 Reticular formation - Formatio reticularis..................................................414

5 Cerebellum - Cerebellum................................................................................418

6 Diencephalon - Diencephalon.......................................................................424

6.1 Epithalamus - Epithalamus....................................................................425

6.2 Subthalamus - Subthalamus..................................................................425

6.3 Thalamus-Thalamus..............................................................................426

6.4 Hypothalamus - Hypothalamus............................................................430

7 Telencephalon-Telencephalon....................................................................432

7.1 Cerebral cortex - Cortex cerebri (pallium)............................................434

7.2 Functional cortical areas.........................................................................435

7.3 Basal ganglia - Nuclei basales................................................................439

7.4 Cerebral white matter - Corpus medullare.........................................442

8 Limbic system....................................................................................................444

8.1 Limbic system development...................................................................448

9 Sensory...............................................................................................................450

9.1 Ascending tracts....................................................................................... 452

10 Motor control..................................................................................................456

10.1 Descending (motor) tracts...................................................................458

11 Special sensory tracts

11.1 Visual pathway.......................................................................................462

11.2 Vestibular pathway...............................................................................464

11.3 Auditory pathway.................................................................................465

11.4 Olfactory pathway.................................................................................466

11.5 Gustatory pathway...............................................................................467

12 Ventricular system of the brain...................................................................468

12.1 Cerebrospinal fluid - Liquor cerebrospinalis...................................470

13 Meninges - M eninges....................................................................................471

14 Arteries of the brain - Arteriae cerebri.....................................................472

15 Veins of the brain - Venae cerebri.............................................................474

15.1 Dural venous sinuses - Sinus durae m atris......................................475

16 Blood supply of the spinal cord...................................................................476

17 Chemical system of the brain.......................................................................477

18 Psychomotor development..........................................................................478

19 Sections

19.1 Cross-sections of the spinal cord.......................................................482

19.2 Cross-sections of the medulla oblongata........................................483

19.3 Cross-sections of the pons...................................................................484

19.4 Cross-sections of the midbrain...........................................................485

19.5 Sagittal and transverse section of the brain....................................486

19.6 Frontal sections of the brain................................................................487

20 Table - Cerebral sulci.....................................................................................488

21 Schemes

21.1 Scheme of cranial nerves nuclei........................................................488

21.2 Scheme of the ventricular system,

arteries of the brain and venous sinuses........................................489

21.3 Schemes of somatosensory tracts......................................................490

21.4 Schemes of special sensory tracts......................................................491

21.5 Schemes of motor tracts.......................................................................492

21.6 Scheme of afferentation and efferentation of the cerebellum....493

22 Review questions and figures......................................................................494

23 Acknowledgements and references............................................................500

Senses and skin 501

1 Senses.................................................................................................................502

1.1 Internal environment - Interoceptors.................................................502

1.2 Olfactory organ - Organum olfactorium..............................................503

1.3 Gustatory organ - Organum gustatorium...........................................503

1.4 Organ of hearing and balance - Organum vestibulocochleare.......504

1.5 Visual organ - Organum visus.................................................................508

1.5.1 Accessory visual structures - Structurae accessoriae o culi...512

1.6 Touch, pain, proprioception - Tactus, nociceptio, proprioceptio.... 514

2 Skin / Integument - Integumentum com m une.......................................515

2.1 Breast and mammary gland - Mamma et glandula m am m aria..517

3 Review questions and figures.....................................................................518

4 Acknowledgements and references..........................................................520

Endocrine system

1 General overview...........................................................................................522

2 Diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES) and paraganglia......................522

3 Hypophysis / pituitary gland - Hypophysis / glandula p itu ita ria...........523

4 Pineal gland - Glandula pinealis / corpus p in e a le...................................524

5 Endocrine component of the pancreas - pancreatic islets....................524

6 Thyroid and parathyroid gland

- Glandula thyroidea et glandulae parathyroideae..................................525

7 Suprarenal/adrenal glands - Glandula suprarenalis................................526

8 Summary of the endocrine glands and their hormones........................527

9 Review questions and figures.....................................................................527

10 Acknowledgements and references......................................................528


Contents

Topography 529

1 Topography of the head.................................................................................530

1.1 Topography of the scalp and calvaria.................................................531

1.2 Layers of the cheek.................................................................................531

1.3 Orbit-O rbita...........................................................................................532

1.4 Common tendinous rin g -Anulus tendineus communis.................534

1.5 Cavernous sinus - Sinus cavernosus...................................................534

1.6 Internal acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus internus....................534

1.7 Tympanic cavity - Cavitas tympani.....................................................535

1.8 Nasal cavity - Cavitas nasi......................................................................536

1.9 Internal surface of the cranial base - Basis cranii interna...............537

1.10 Temporal fossa - Fossa temporalis.....................................................537

1.11 Infratemporal fossa - Fossa infratemporalis......................................538

1.12 Pterygopalatine fossa - Fossa pterygopalatina................................539

1.13 Subdivisions of the infratemporal fossa.............................................540

1.13.1 Pterygomandibular space - Spatium pterygomandibulare . 540

1.13.2 Parapharyngeal space - Spatium parapharyngeum............540

1.13.3 Prestyloid space - Spatium prestyloideum............................541

1.13.4 Retrostyloid space-Spatium retrostyloideum......................541

1.13.5 Retropharyngeal space - Spatium retropharyngeum..........541

2 Topography of the neck.................................................................................542

2.1 Regions of the neck - Regiones cervicales.........................................542

2.1.1 Submandibular triangle - Trigonum submandibulare...........543

2.1.2 Carotid triangle - Trigonum caroticum.....................................543

2.1.3 Submental triangle - Trigonum submentale............................544

2.1.4 Muscular/omotracheal triangle

- Trigonum musculare/omotracheale........................................544

2.1.5 Lesser supraclavicular fossa - Fossa supraclavicularis minor 544

2.1.6 Omoclavicular triangle - Trigonum omoclaviculare...............545

2.1.7 Omotrapezoid triangle - Trigonum omotrapezium................545

2.1.8 Scalene fissure - Fissura scalenorum ......................................545

2.1.9 Scalenovertebral triangle - Trigonum scalenovertebrale......546

2.2 Spaces of the neck...................................................................................546

2.3 Layers of the neck, cervical fascia - Fascia cervicalis..........................547

3 Topography of the thorax..............................................................................548

3.1 Layers of the thoracic wall.....................................................................548

3.2 Intercostal space - Spatium intercostale.............................................549

3.3 Organ projections on the thoracic wall...............................................549

3.4 Mediastinum - Mediastinum.................................................................550

3.5 Topography of the oesophagus, trachea and aorta..........................552

3.6 Openings of the diaphragm...................................................................553

4 Topography of the abdomen........................................................................554

4.1 Structure of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall......................555

4.1.1 Rectus sheath - Vagina musculi recti abdominis....................555

4.2 Inguinal canal - Canalis inguinalis.........................................................556

4.3 Inguinal region - Regio inguinalis.........................................................558

4.3.1 Common sites of hernia ............................................................558

4.4 Abdominal cavity - Cavitas abdominis................................................559

4.5 Retroperitoneal space - Retroperitoneum.........................................559

4.6 Peritoneal cavity - Cavitas peritonealis...............................................560

4.6.1 Root of the transverse mesocolon

- Radix mesocoli transversi..........................................................560

4.6.2 Bursa omentalis.............................................................................561

4.6.3 Hepatoduodenal ligament and cystohepatic triangle...........562

4.6.4 Paracolic spaces.............................................................................562

4.6.5 Mesenteries, omenta, peritoneal ligaments

and recesses of the peritoneal cavity......................................563

5 Topography of the lesser pelvis - Pelvis minor..........................................564

5.1 Peritoneal cavity of the pelvis - Cavitas peritonealis pelvis............564

5.2 Subperitoneal space - Subperitoneum................................................565

5.3 Perineal region - Regio perinealis.........................................................566

5.4 Urogenital triangle - Trigonum urogenitale........................................566

5.5 Ischioanal fossa - Fossa ischioanalis....................................................567

5.6 Pudendal canal - Canalis pudendalis...................................................567

5.7 Layers of the scrotum.............................................................................567

6 Topography of the back..................................................................................568

6.1 Vertebral canal - Canalis vertebralis....................................................568

6.2 Suboccipital triangle - Trigonum suboccipitale................................569

6.3 Superior and inferior lumbar triangles

- Trigonum lumbale superius et inferius.............................................569

7 Topography of the upper limb.......................................................................570

7.1 Topography of the shoulder - Regio deltoidea..................................570

7.1.1 Suprascapularand spinoglenoid notches

- Incisura scapulae et spinoglenoidalis.....................................570

7.1.2 Axilla - Fossa axillaris..................................................................571

7.1.3 Triangular and quadrangular space

- Foramen omotricipitale et humerotricipitale.......................572

7.1.4 Clavipectoral triangle

-Trigonum clavipectorale/deltopectorale.................................572

7.2 Topography of the arm - Regio brachialis............................................573

7.2.1 Radial canal - Canalis nervi radialis............................................573

7.3 Topography of the elbow - Regio cubitalis..........................................574

7.3.1 Cubital fossa - Fossa cubitalis.....................................................574

7.3.2 Pronator, cubital and supinator canals

- Canalis pronatorius, cubitalis et supinatorius......................575

7.4 Topography of the forearm - Regio antebrachialis............................575

7.5 Topography of the wrist - Regio carpalis.............................................576

7.5.1 Anatomical snuff box - Foveola radialis....................................576

7.5.2 Ulnar canal - Canalis ulnaris........................................................576

7.5.3 Carpal tunel - Canalis carpi.........................................................577

7.6 Topography of the hand - Regio manus.............................................577

8 Topography of the lower limb ...............................................................578

8.1 Topography of the hip - Regio coxae..................................................578

8.1.1 Greater and lesser sciatic foramina

- Foramen ischiadicum majus et minus....................................578

8.1.2 Suprapiriform and infrapiriform foramen,

lesser sciatic foramen - Foramen suprapiriforme

et infrapiriforme, foramen ischiadicum minus..........................579

8.1.3 Vascular and muscular space

- Lacuna vasorum et musculorum..............................................579

8.1.4 Obturator canal - Canalis obturatorius.....................................580

8.2 Topography of the thigh - Regio femoris............................................580

8.2.1 Femoral triangle and iliopectineal fossa

- Trigonum femorale et fossa iliopectinea...............................581

8.2.2 Adductor canal - Canalis adductorius......................................581

8.2.3 Popliteal fossa - Fossa poplitea.................................................582

8.3 Topography of the leg - Regio cruris....................................................582

8.3.1 Fibular canal, tendinous arch of the soleus

and musculofibular canal - Canalis fibularis,

arcus tendineus musculi solei, canalis musculofibularis........583

8.4 Topography of the ankle - Regio tarsalis............................................583

8.4.1 Lateral retromalleolar space ......................................................583

8.4.2 Tarsal tunnel/canal - Canalis malleolaris.................................584

8.4.3 Structures in front of the medial malleolus............................584

8.5 Topography of the foot - Regio pedis...................................................585

8.5.1 Dorsum of the foot - Dorsum pedis..........................................585

8.5.2 Sole-Planta...................................................................................585

9 Sections .......................................................................................................... 586

9.1 Sections of the head................................................................................586

9.2 Sections of the neck.................................................................................587

9.3 Sections of the thorax.............................................................................588

9.4 Sections of the abdomen........................................................................589

9.5 Sections of the pelvis..............................................................................590

9.6 Sections of the arm and forearm..........................................................592

9.7 Sections of the wrist and hand.............................................................593

9.8 Sections of the thigh and leg.................................................................594

9.9 Section of the foot...................................................................................595

10 Review questions and figures.........................................................................595

11 Acknowledgements and references..............................................................600




       
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