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E-kniha: Mandala and History -- Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism – Luboš Bělka

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Mandala and History -- Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism

Elektronická kniha: Mandala and History
Autor: Luboš Bělka
Podnázev: Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism

– Kniha přináší originální zpracování unikátního materiálu, který vznikl v polovině sedmdesátých let 20. století a v angličtině nebyl dosud monograficky publikován. Původní vizuální analýza pracuje jak s historickými fotografiemi z ... (celý popis)
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Kniha přináší originální zpracování unikátního materiálu, který vznikl v polovině sedmdesátých let 20. století a v angličtině nebyl dosud monograficky publikován. Původní vizuální analýza pracuje jak s historickými fotografiemi z Burjatska a Tibetu, tak i vlastními autorovými terénními pozorováními a záznamy rozhovorů s aktéry. Vznik nové formy buddhismu v rámci tradiční burjatské sanghy lze datovat do poloviny 20. století. Po druhé světové válce se v rámci tzv. první obnovy náboženství objevilo úsilí zachránit z represáliemi sužovaného tibetského buddhismu alespoň základní věci. Ve třicátých letech byly kláštery pobořeny, některé zcela zničeny, mniši vyhnáni, někteří popraveni, část z duchovenstva byla zavřená do gulagu a zbytek se musel vzdát mnišského stavu. V polovině šedesátých let, v období prvních kritik Stalinova kultu vznikla v Ulan-Ude malá, ale významná skupina, buddhistická komunita. Neoficiální, tajná mikro-sangha se formovala pod vedením B. B. Dandarona, burjatského buddhisty a buddhologa a existovala až do jeho uvěznění v roce 1972. Byl odsouzen na pět let nucených prací a ve věku šedesáti let v roce 1947 v pracovním táboře umírá. Jeden z jeho nejpřednějších žáků A. I. Železnov namaloval thangku, věnovanou svému učiteli; jednalo se o mandalu Vadžrabhajravy. Namaloval ji jako inovaci starobylé tradice a thangka tak představuje unikátní zobrazení v rámci burjatské buddhistické tradice, neboť začleňuje i prvky z vnějšího světa. Je až překvapivé jak mnoho lze z thangky vyčíst s využitím religionistického přístupu. Tato metodologie se odlišuje od způsobu, jak obrazu rozumí sami vyznavači rodícího se Dandaronova kultu.

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Přepis ukázky

Luboš Bělka (1958)

Studied Philosophy at the Faculty of Arts and

Biology at the Faculty of Science, Masaryk

University in Brno in 1984. His work brought him

to Buryatia in South-East Siberia in 1992.

Here, near Lake Baikal, the religious life

of local people went through the period

of restoration after the long-term Soviet

suppression of Tibetan Buddhism. After

return, Luboš Bělka decided to extend his

knowledge in the academic study of religions

at the School of Oriental and African Studies

in London (1994-1995). He regularly traveled

to Buryatia and neighboring countries and in

1995 started to work at the Department for

the Study of Religions, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk

University. Besides his travels to Asia (Buryatia,

Mongolia, Tibet – Amdo), he lectured at various

universities abroad: Vienna, Bern, Szeged,

Bratislava, Burlington (Vermont)

or Bloomington (Indiana); in 2004–2005

he was a Fulbright Scholar in the Department

of Religion, University of Vermont, Burlington.

A selection of books published in Czech:

Tibetan Buddhism in Buryatia (2000);

Buddhist Eschatology: Shambhala Myth (2004);

Buddha and His Depictions (2013);

Mandala and History (2014).

MANDALA AND HISTORY

Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism

The book brings an original presentation of unique

materials from the mid-1970s, which have not been

published in an English-language monograph. The

visual analysis works both with historical photographs

from Buryatia and Tibet, and with the author’s fi eld

observations and recordings of interviews with

participants. The origination of a new form

of Buddhism within the traditional Buryat sangha dates

back to the middle of the 20

th

century. After World War

II, the so-called fi rst restoration emerges, consisting

in the eff ort to rescue religious life following a decade

of reprisals. In the 1930s, all monasteries were closed

down, a part of monks were executed,

a part imprisoned and the rest had to disrobe.

In the mid-1960s, during the period of the fi rst criticism

of Stalin’s cult, a small, nevertheless important

Buddhist community originated in Ulan-Ude.

An unoffi cial or clandestine micro-sangha formed

around Bidia D. Dandaron (1914-1974), a Buryat

Buddhist scholar, which existed until 1972, the year

of Dandaron’s imprisonment. Subsequently he was

sentenced to fi ve years in the gulag.

One of his fi rst disciples was A. I. Zheleznov, a painter

who painted Vajrabhairava mandala. His innovative way

of depiction did not conform to the rooted tradition

and the painting exceeded all the standards.

The aim of the book is to show by means

of the painting the formation of a new religious group,

its perception of the outside world and incorporation

of such a vision into the mandala.

Mandala and History

Luboš Bělka

Mandala and History

Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism

Luboš Bělka

FACULTY OF ARTS

MASARYK UNIVERSITY

#462

#462


OPERA fAcultAtis PhilOsOPhicAE

Universitatis Masarykianae

sPisY filOzOfické fAkultY

Masarykovy Univerzity

#462



Mandala and history Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism Luboš Bělka

fAcultY Of ARts

Masaryk university

BrnO 2016

#462


KATALOGIZACE V KNIZE - NÁRODNÍ KNIHOVNA ČR

Bělka, Luboš

Mandala and history : Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron and Buryat Buddhism / Luboš Bělka. -- Vydání první. -- Brno : Faculty of Arts,

Masaryk University, 2016. -- 119 stran. -- (Spisy Filozofické fakulty Masarykovy univerzity, ISSN 1211-3034 ; 462)

ISBN 978-80-210-8493-3

24-335 * 323.28-051 * 929 * 243.4 * 323.28 * 24-1/-9 * 13:003.6 * 2-6 * 328/329 * (571.54)

- Dandaron, Bidija, 1914-1974

- buddhističtí filozofové -- Rusko -- 20. století

- političtí vězni -- Rusko -- 20. století

- tibetský buddhismus -- Rusko -- 20. století

- náboženská perzekuce -- Rusko -- 20. století

- učení buddhismu -- Rusko -- 20. století

- mandaly -- symbolika

- mandaly -- Rusko -- 20. století

- monografie

- biografie

- Burjatsko (Rusko) -- náboženské poměry -- 20. století

- Burjatsko (Rusko) -- politika a vláda -- 20. století

- Buddhist philosophers -- Russia -- 20th century

- political prisoners -- Russia -- 20th century

- Tibetan Buddhism -- Russia -- 20th century

- religious persecution -- Russia -- 20th century

- Buddhist doctrine -- Russia -- 20th century

- mandalas -- symbolism

- mandalas -- Russia -- 20th century

- Buriatiia (Russia) -- religious conditions -- 20th century

- Buriatiia (Russia) -- politics and government -- 20th century

- monographs

- biography

22/24 - Náboženství Dálného východu. Indická náboženství. Hinduismus. Buddhismus [5]

929 - Biografie [8]

294 - Religions of Indic origin [5]

920 - Biography, genealogy, insignia [8]

The preparation of this monograph was supported by the grant TEMEVYR – Theoretical and Methodological Chalenges in the Study

of Religions (MUNI/A/0931/2015), investigated by the Department for the Study of Religions Masaryk University, 2016.

Review by Martin Slobodník (Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia)

Daniel Berounský (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic)

© 2016 Masarykova univerzita

ISBN 978-80-210-8725-5 (online : pdf)

ISBN 978-80-210-8493-3 (paperback)

ISSN 1211-3034

DOI: 10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8493-2016


COntents

Foreword .............................................................................................................................. 7

1. HISTORICAL CONTExT ............................................................................................. 9

1.1 The Buryat sangha within Tsarist and Soviet Russia .............................................. 9

1.2 Internal development of the Sangha at the turn of the 19

th

century ................. 10

1.2.1 Conservatives ................................................................................................ 11

1.2.2 Reformers ...................................................................................................... 12

1.2.3 Nirvanists ...................................................................................................... 14

1.2.4 Balagat movement ........................................................................................ 14

1.3 Buryat sangha during Soviet period ...................................................................... 17

1.3.1 Search for relationship: 1917–1924 .............................................................. 17

1.3.2 First wave of reprisals: 1925–1928 ............................................................... 17

1.3.3 Second wave of reprisals: 1929–1938 .......................................................... 19

1.3.4 Absence of official sangha: 1939–1945 ....................................................... 27

1.3.5 First restoration of Buddhism: 1946–1985 ................................................. 27

1.3.6 Second restoration of Buddhism: 1986-present ........................................ 30

1.4 Bidia D. Dandaron: life and work ......................................................................... 33

1.4.1 Childhood (1914–1928) ............................................................................... 35

1.4.2 Adolescence (1929–1931) ............................................................................. 41

1.4.3 Study in Leningrad (1931–1937) ................................................................ 42

1.4.4 First imprisonment (1937–1943) ................................................................ 42

1.4.5 Freedom intermezzo (1943–1947) .............................................................. 44

1.4.6 Second imprisonment (1947–1955) ............................................................ 44

1.4.7 Freedom (1955–1965) .................................................................................. 45

1.4.8 Teaching (1966–1972) .................................................................................. 45

1.4.9 Third imprisonment (1972–1974) .............................................................. 46

1.5 Dandaron’s sangha ................................................................................................. 51


2. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF D ANDARON MANDALA ........................... 57

2.1 Religious or “theological” approach ..................................................................... 59

2.2 Academic approach ............................................................................................... 60

3. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................ 89

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................. 93

LIST OF PICTURES ....................................................................................................... 101

INDEx .............................................................................................................................. 109

SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................... 119


7

FOrewOrD The following book deals with the life, work and legacy of the Buryat Buddhist and Buddhologist Bidia Dandarovich Dandaron (1914–1974) against the background of Buryat Buddhism in the 19

th

and 20

th

centuries. The text is based on

the author’s earlier articles and monographs, which were substantially rewritten and enriched with new knowledge.

1

My thanks and gratitude extend to my colleagues who assisted me with the preparation of this text and collection of materials. Some contributed with their testimonies and recollections of the period, people and events; others with critical comments and insights. I am also grateful to have been given photographs and permission to publish the Dandaron mandala in color. I would not have been able to write this book without all these things. I will try to mention all those who contributed to this work – in the alphabetical order and omitting academic titles. Some of these great people are not among us any more:

Daniel Berounský (Praha); Aleksandr I. Breslavets (Saint Petersburg); Donatas L. I. Butkus (Vilnius); Nikolay V. Tsyrempilov (Astana); Tsyvan Anchenovich Dashitsyrenov (Ulan-Ude); Andrej Fukas (Bratislava); Isabelle Charleux (Paris); David Mac Gillavry (Brno); Andreas Maleta (Oberweiss); Karénina Kollmar-Paulenz (Bern); Josef Kolmaš (Praha); Stefan Krist (Vienna); Pavel Křepela (Brno); Kristina Lange (Leipzig); Linnart E. Mäll (Tartu); Vladimir Mikhailovich 1 For more details see Luboš Bělka, Tibetský buddhismus v Burjatsku [Tibetan Buddhism in Buryatia, in Czech], Brno: Masarykova univerzita 2001; Luboš Bělka, “Bidia D. Dandaron: the Case of a Buryat Buddhist and Buddhologist during the Soviet Period”, in: Iva Doležalová – Luther H. Martin – Dalibor Papoušek (eds.), The Academic Study of Religion during the Cold War: East and West, New York – Bern: Peter Lang 2001, pp. 171–182; Luboš Bělka, “Mandala Dandarona: Vizualnaya reprezentatsia istorii neofitsialnoi buryatskoi buddiiskoi sangkhi sovetskogo perioda” [Dandaron Mandala: Visual Representation of the Unofficial Buryat Buddhist Sangha History during the Soviet Era, in Russian], Tartaria Magna 2/1, 2012, pp. 151–169; Luboš Bělka, “Dandaron Mandala: Unofficial Buryat Buddhist Sangha during the Soviet Era”, Orientalistika, University of Latvia, vol. 793, 2013, pp. 132–143.


8 Foreword

Montlevich (Saint Petersburg); Aleksandr Moiseevich Piatigorsky (London); Her

bert Schwabl (Zürich); Martin Slobodník (Bratislava); Andrey M. Strelkov (Ulan

-Ude and Saint Petersburg); Andrey A. Terentyev (Saint Petersburg); Tsymzhit

Purbuevna Vanchikova (Ulan-Ude).

However, my biggest thanks belong to my family.


9

1. HistOriCaL COntext

1.1 The Buryat sangha within Tsarist and Soviet Russia

The position of Tibetan Buddhism, previously referred to as Lamaism, in Russia,

later the Soviet Union, changed in accordance with state policy regarding this

religion. The relationship between state authority and minority churches, in

this case the Buryat sangha (Buddhist community of monks and lay believers),

oscillated from a policy of tolerance to one of elimination of Buddhism in Russia.

1

The attitude of the Buddhist sangha also transformed in response to changes

originating in Moscow and Saint Petersburg. In the three-hundred-year history of

the interaction between Buddhism and the state, several key turning points may be

identified, in which religious policies of the Russian or Soviet government changed

radically. The latter half of the 1930s can clearly be described as the most critical

period. Official religious life ceased to exist for almost a decade as a result of harsh

Stalinist reprisals. The first restoration of Buddhism in Buryatia began after 1946

and lasted until the perestroika, in the mid-1980s. The history of Buryat Buddhism

is the history of a search (at least in part successful) for a mutual relationship

between the Russian Orthodox state and the Buddhist sangha which was, in its

early stages, connected to international structures.

1 A remarkable and probably the oldest publication describing the relationship between the Ortho

dox state and Buryat sangha in the 19

th

century from the viewpoint of the Tsarist administration is:

Vladimir Vashkevich, Lamaity v Vostochnoi Sibiri [Lamaists in the Eastern Siberia, in Russian], Saint Peters

burg: Tipografia Ministerstva Vnutrennykh Del 1885. See also Rustam Sabirov, “Buddhism in the Russian

Republic of Buryatia: History and Contemporary Developments”, in Bruce M. Knauft – Richard Taupier

(eds.), Mongolians after Socialism: Politics, Economy, Religion, Ulanbatar: Mongolian Academy of Sciences,

National University of Mongolia – Open Society Forum Mongolia 2012, pp. 235–248; Natalia Lvovna

Zhukovskaia, “Buddizm i shamanizm kak faktory formirovanii buryatskogo mentaliteta” [Buddhism

and Shamanism as Forming Factors of Buryat Mentality, in Russian], in: Natalia Lvovna Zhukovskaia

(ed.), O buddizme i buddistakh. Stati raznykh let 1969–2011, Moskva: Orientalia 2013, pp. 136–141; Tsymzhit

P. Vanchikova – Galina D. Chimitdorzhin, Istoria buddizma v Buryatii: 1945–2000 gg. [History of Buddhism

in Buryatia: 1945–2000, in Russian], Ulan-Ude: Izdatelstvo BNTs SO RAN 2006.


10

1. Historical context

1.2 Internal development of the sangha at the turn

of the 19

th

century

The social reforms of 1905 directly affected religious matters: the Tsar’s Toleration Patent granted Russian citizens the right to leave the Orthodox Church freely and without legal or other consequences. In addition, it ensured the right of parents to raise their children in the spirit of their chosen religion and guaranteed non-orthodox churches, denominations and other ecclesiastic structures, such as Old Believers, the right to create and build temples, own property and even to establish elementary schools.

2

Another example of expanding tsarist tolerance towards Buddhism came in the form of the approval, by Tsar Nicolas II, for the construction of a Buddhist temple in Saint Petersburg in 1907.

3

Thus, another non-Christian sacral build

ing was built in the center of the Russian Orthodoxy (following the Muslim mosque).

The Buryat Buddhist clergy, lay intelligentsia and to a lesser extent common believers, all became involved in these events. Even before the outbreak of World War I, the process of forming differing opinions was apparent among the Buryat Buddhists. This process continued well into the 1920s and was especially apparent in the political development in the Soviet Union. The monastic community and the few members of Buryat national intelligentsia fell into two competing groups. This schism derived from their fundamentally different views on the developments in the sangha (community of Buddhist monks and lay people): the reformers (Rus. obnovlentsi) and the conservatives (traditionalists). Apart from these two groups, there was a third, not very numerous, group of nirvanists,

4

which rejected the schism and pointed out that Buddhists must devote their energy to the primary aim of Buddhism, the spiritual goal of all aspiration – the achievement of the state of nirvana by all sentient beings.

Kseniia M. Gerasimova in her monograph on the reform movement of Buryat Buddhist clergy mentions a link between rich Buryats (referred to by her as kulak in Russian or noyon in Buryat) and the conservative wing. The oth- 2 Cf. Harrold Berman, “Religious Rights in Russia at a Time of Tumultuous Transition: A Historical Theory”, in: Johan David Vyver, van der – John Witte Jr. (eds.), Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, Hague: Kluwer 1996, p. 288. 3 Ernst Benz, “The Status of Buddhism in the Soviet Union and Its Relations to Buddhism in Southeast Asia”, in: Ernst Benz (ed.), Buddhism or Communism: Which Holds the Future of Asia? London: Allen and Unwin 1966, p. 153; see also Aleksandr Andreev I., Buddiiskaia sviatynia Petrograda [The Buddhist Shrine in Saint Petersburg, in Russian], Ulan-Ude: EkoArt 1992. 4 Kseniia M. Gerasimova, “Sushchnost izmeneniia buddizma” [The Nature of the Buddhist Change, in Russian], in: R. E. Pubaev (ed.), Kritika ideologii lamaizma i shamanstva: Materialy seminara lektorov-ateistov, Ulan-Ude: Buryatskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo 1965, pp. 28–46.


11

1.2 internal development of the sangha at the turn of the 19

th

century

er group, obnovlentsi, was more democratic and progressive according to the author, but even this group spawned from the rich Buryat bourgeoisie (sic!). She states that:

“Kulaks were politically organized in regional and gubernial congresses in the

Verkhneudinsk, Chita, Gusinoozersk and Tsugol Monasteries. In the Chita congress

in April 1905, the Buryats definitely split into obnovlentsi and starodumtsi, proponents

of bourgeois autonomy without the supervision of peasants... The other group, the

obnovlentsi, was established later in Aginskoe, 1906. Its members were representatives

of intelligentsia, coming from the circles of noyons and kulaks. They were not numer

ous, but were important as ideologists and theoreticians of the obnovlentsi.”

5

1.2.1 Conservatives The first to form an oppositional stance against the reformers were the traditionalists. The conservatives, represented by Lama E. Vambotsyrenov, the former Khori tribal chief (Bur. taisha), stood in strict and often armed opposition to Soviet power. Lamas-warriors did not just belong to the realm of popular myths and the imagination; these Buddhist fighters really existed, although their numbers were lower than Buryat legends have it. At the end of the 1920s and beginning of the 1930s, rebellions against the Bolshevik regime broke out in neighboring Mongolia

6

and in Buryatia, where lamas participated both as ordinary warriors

and as instigators of the unrest.

The Buddhist conservatives advocated the traditional Buryat conception of re

ligion and rejected all changes and reforms. Their efforts were directed towards the maintenance of the pre-war status quo and the traditional lifestyle of the Buddhist community.

Tensions between these two movements in the Buryat Buddhism escalated

at the beginning of the 1920s and the risk of open armed conflict between the feuding factions became imminent even within individual monasteries. The potential conflict was resolved by an unexpected agent: the intervention of Soviet power, the Communist Party, combat groups of atheists, the Komsomol, the secret police and finally the Red Army. 5 Kseniia M. Gerasimova, Obnovlencheskoe dvizhenie buryatskogo lamaistskogo dukhovenstva, 1917–1930 gg. [Buryat Lamaist Clergy Reform Movement, in Russian], Ulan-Ude: Buryatskoe knizhnoe izdatelstvo 1964, pp. 113–114. 6 See for instance: Larry W. Moses, The Political Role of Mongolian Buddhism, Bloomington, Indiana: Asian Studies Research Institute 1977; Bulcsu Siklos, “Mongolian Buddhism: A Defensive Account”, in: Shirin Akiner (ed.), Mongolia Today, London: Kegan Paul 1991, pp. 155–182.




       
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