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Kniha: Legal English -- 2nd edition - Eva Přidalová; Kamila Tozzi

Legal English -- 2nd edition
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Kniha: Legal English -- 2nd edition
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Učebnice právnické angličtiny je určena zejména studentům práva, aplikované lingvistiky, tlumočníkům a překladatelům. Jejím cílem je poskytnout studentům základy právnické ... (celý popis)
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Specifikace
Nakladatelství: » Leges
Médium / forma: Tištěná kniha
Rok vydání: 2015
Počet stran: 256
Rozměr: 230,0x160,0x15,0 mm
Úprava: ilustrace
Vydání: 2nd edition
Skupina třídění: Angličtina
Učební osnovy. Vyučovací předměty. Učebnice
Hmotnost: 0,399kg
Jazyk: česky
Vazba: Brožovaná bez přebalu lesklá
ISBN: 978-80-7502-087-1
EAN: 9788075020871
Ukázka: » zobrazit ukázku
Popis / resumé

První díl se soustřeďuje na ústavní a trestní právo, právo civilních deliktů a rodinné právo. Vysokoškolská učebnice angličtiny zaměřená na oblast práva. Odborná terminologie, texty s právní tematikou, cvičení.

Popis nakladatele

Učebnice právnické angličtiny je určena zejména studentům práva, aplikované lingvistiky, tlumočníkům a překladatelům. Jejím cílem je poskytnout studentům základy právnické angličtiny potřebné pro jejich budoucí profesní rozvoj, zároveň se snaží rozvíjet znalosti obecného jazyka.

Jednotlivé lekce obsahují texty s právní tématikou, klíčová slovíčka, případy z právní praxe, otázky k zamyšlení a několik druhů cvičení. Některé úkoly studenty motivují ke srovnání českého právního systému s anglo-americkým systémem common law.

Učebnice byla ve druhém vydání doplněna o další témata (závazkové právo, pracovní právo) a aktualizována v souvislosti s rekodifikací českého soukromého práva. Uživatelskou přitažlivost umocňují obrázky a veselé ilustrace.

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

I . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

II . JUSTICE AND THE LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

III . COMMON LAW AND EQUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

IV . THE SYSTEM OF JUSTICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

V . THE LEGAL PROFESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

VI . THE JURY IN THE ANGLO-AMERICAN SYSTEM OF LAW . . . . . . . . . . .37

VII . WHAT IS LAW? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

VIII . HUMAN RIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

IX . CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

X . LAWMAKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

XI . HEADS OF STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63

XII . THE CZECH CONSTITUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

XIII . INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

XIV . THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS: INVESTIGATION PHASE . . . . . . .91

XV . CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

XVI . SEARCH AND SEIZURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99

XVII . INTERROGATIONS AND CONFESSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102

XVIII . CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS: PROCEEDINGS BEFORE TRIAL . . . .107

XIX . CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS: THE TRIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110

XX . CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

XXI . CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

XXII . DEFENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131

XXIII . SENTENCING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140

XXIV . INTRODUCTION TO TORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143

XXV . INTENTIONAL TORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152

XXVI . NEGLIGENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166


XXVII . INSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173

XXVIII . STRICT LIABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176

XXIX . CIVIL PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185

XXX . FAMILY LAW – MARRIAGE AND SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 XXXI . FAMILY LAW – CHILDREN, ALIMONY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 XXXII . INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216

XXXIII . FACTORS CAUSING INVALIDITY OF A CONTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222

XXXIV . DISCHARGE OF A CONTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233

XXXV . TYPES OF A CONTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242

XXXVI . INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYMENT LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 THE JUDICIARY The judiciary in the Czech Republic is defined by the Constitution so that the courts perform their duties as independent authorities (Art. 82 CCR).

The system of ordinary courts is made up of District, Regional, High courts and the Supreme Court. The system of general (civil and criminal) judiciary is supplemented by administrative and constitutional judiciary.

The Constitutional Court has the authority to protect constitutionality (Art. 83 CCR). It is composed of fifteen justices appointed for a period of ten years (re-appointment possible). The justices are appointed by the President of the Republic with the consent of the Senate.

The judicial system in the Czech Republic is recognized as a professional career judiciary. There is no trial by jury. There is, however, the laic participation in the administration of justice in the form of laypersons sitting as judges in chambers, hearing cases at first instance. Laypersons are elected by municipal assemblies. Two lay judges sit with a professional judge, hearing non-specialized cases at first instance. Appellate and Supreme courts’ chambers are composed of professional judges only.

The judges are appointed by the President of the Republic. They must be at least 30 years of age at the time of the appointment, must have completed an M.A. in law and a three year period of specialized training within the courts. Judges are appointed for life and can be only removed following disciplinary proceedings conducted by a special judicial ethics panel.

Civil and criminal courts share the same judicial structure. Together, they form the courts of general jurisdiction (obecné soudnictví). They are competent in all types of disputes with the exception of those expressly reserved for the administrative courts or the Constitutional Court.

The structure of the ordinary courts is as follows:

Supreme Court located in Brno;

2 High Courts (one located in Prague with jurisdiction over Bohemia and the other seated in Olomouc with jurisdiction over Moravia);

8 Regional courts (the regional court in the capital is called Metropolitan Court in Prague (Art. 11 Judges Act 2002);

86 District courts (the district court in the district Brno is called City Court, Art. 12 Judges Act 2002). Judges Czech law is a continental type of law. The judge is bound by law in his/her decision taking. He/she is entitled to consider consistency of another legal rule

XII. THE CZECH CONSTITUTION


81

with the law. Judges are independent in exercising their functions and bound by the law only. They are bound to interpret rules of law in accordance with their best knowledge and conscience, and obliged to decide impartially, fairly and with no delay, based on the facts found, consistent with the law only. The Supreme Audit Office The Supreme Audit Office is established by the Constitution, it is an independent state body that audits management of state property and implementation of state budget. The Czech National Bank The Czech National Bank is the state central bank, entrusted with maintaining price stability. Its competence comprises issuing of banknotes and coins, setting the monetary policy, managing of the circulation of the Czech currency and the payment system, supervision of the financial market, bank sector and other financial institutions. The Public Defender of Rights His/her task is to defend individuals against such conduct of authorities enumerated in Art. 1 (2) PDR Act that does not comply with principles of a democratic state, rule of law and good administration, as well as against illegal inactivity of those authorities (Art. 1 PDR Act). In order to protect public interest he/she has the special legitimation to challenge a decision of an administrative authority at an administrative court and to seek abrogation of a law other than a statute at the Constitutional Court. 1. Decide: True or false?

1. The Parliament consists of two chambers – The Chamber of Representa

tives and the Senate.

2. The Parliament is the supreme judicial body, it passes all bills valid in the

territory of the Czech Republic.

3. The Government is the supreme body of executive power.

4. The Constitutional Court was set up to protect governmental rights.

5. The Supreme Court is the supreme legislative body in all matters within

the jurisdiction of the courts.

2. Fill in missing words:

1. Judges are appointed by .

XII. THE CZECH CONSTITUTION


82

2. Every two years one-third of the Senate’s seats come up for

. 3. The President may serve a maximum of terms in office. 4. Presidential power is limited, the most important is the right to

any which has already been passed

by . 5. The Government is the supreme body of p ower. 6. The Government has exclusive legislative initiative in terms of the

. 7. Based on law, the main goal of the Czech national bank is to preserve

stability and purchasing power of the . 8. The Constitutional Court was set up to protect . 9. Judges of the Constitutional Court who are appointed by the President with

for a term of ten years.

3. In the extract about the President find English equivalents for the

following terms: společná schůze výkon funkce ujmout se úřadu složit slib podepisovat zákony být zvolen dvakrát za sebou jmenovat a odvolávat předsedu vlády svolávat zasedání poslanecké sněmovny rozpustit sněmovnu odpouštět a zmírňovat tresty jmenovat soudce Ústavního soudu

4. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Ústava je základní zákon země, jenž stanovuje charakter, koncepci

a organizaci vlády a hlavní zásady vnitřního života společnosti.

XII. THE CZECH CONSTITUTION


83

2. Americká ústava neupravuje chování soukromých osob.

3. Státní moc se podle ústavy skládá ze tří složek – moci výkonné, zákono

dárné a soudní.

4. Zákonodárnou moc představuje parlament, který se obvykle skládá ze

dvou komor.

5. Soudní moc je vykonávána prostřednictvím soudů, jejichž úkolem je

vykládat a aplikovat právo.

6. Prezident USA je volen ve všeobecných volbách na období čtyř let.

5. Briefly summarize (100) the main similarities and differences between the

powers of the American and Czech Presidents:

6. There are fifteen words connected with politics in the box. Use them to

complete the sentences – in some cases you will need to make plural: abstention budget consensus constitution devolution house leader leak legislation membership policy poll recess spokesman veto 1. Germany has a federal . 2. A government revealed that discussions had been

concluded on the treaty. 3. According to the latest opinion the Prime Minister is more

unpopular than ever. 4. Poland’s application for of the EU was successful. 5. Many Scots would like to see more of power from

Westminster.

XII. THE CZECH CONSTITUTION


84

6. Parliament has introduced to control the sale of drugs.

7. The bill was passed by both and sent to the President for

signature.

8. The crisis happened during the summer and Parliament

had to be recalled.

9. The government is investigating the latest of documents

relating to the spy trial. 10. The government is running a tight monetary to try to

control inflation. 11. The of the opposition criticized the Prime Minister for

his failure to act. 12. The motion was carried by 200 votes to 150; there were 60

. 13. The President has the power of over bills passed by

Congress. 14. There is a between all the major parties about what we

should do now. 15. The minister has put forward a aimed at slowing down

the economy.

XII. THE CZECH CONSTITUTION


216

KEY TERMS

as per contract

assign

assignee

assignor

break a contract

condition of a contract

consideration

contractual obligations

counteroffer

deed

default discharge

execution of contract

express and implied terms

fixed-term contract

formation of a contract

make a contract

mature into a contract

misrepresentation

pecuniary

performance

subject matter of a contract

terminate the contract

terms

unenforceable contract

vitiate

wilful misrepresentation

A contract may be defined as a legally binding agreement or, in the words of Sir Frederick Pollock: “A promise or set of promises which the law will enforce”.

Under the common law, a promise becomes an enforceable contract when there

is an offer by one party (offeror) that is accepted by the other party (offeree) with the exchange of legally sufficient consideration; hence the equation learned by law students: offer + acceptance + consideration = contract. A one-sided promise to do something (e.g.a promise to make a gift) does not lead to formation of an enforceable contract, as it lacks consideration.

The agreement will create rights and obligations that may be enforced in the

courts. Rights are something positive which a party wants to get from a contract (e.g. the right to payment of money). Obligations are something which a party has to do or give up to get those rights (e.g. the obligation to work). A party may want to transfer its rights under a contract to another party. This is called an assignment. When a party assigns its rights under the contract to another party, the assigning party is called assignor and the party who gets the rights is called the assignee.

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS


217

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS

When there has been a breach of contract, the

non-breaching party will often seek remedies

available under the law. The basic remedy for

breach of contract in the Anglo-American legal

system is pecuniary compensation to an injured

party for the loss of the benefits that party would

have received had the contract been performed.

Where monetary damages would not be an

adequate remedy, such as in a case where two

parties enter into a real estate contract and the

seller decides to sell to a third party, the court may

order specific performance. Specific performance

involves an order by the court compelling the

breaching party to perform the contract.

CLASSIFICATION

Contracts may be divided into two broad classes:

Contracts by deed

A deed is a formal legal document signed, witnessed and delivered to effect a

conveyance or transfer of property or to create a legal obligation or contract.

Simple contracts

Contracts which are not deeds are known as simple contracts. They are informal

contracts and may be made in any way - in writing, orally or they may be implied

from conduct.

Another way of classifying contracts is according to whether they are “bilateral”

or “unilateral”.

Bilateral contracts

A bilateral contract is one where a promise by one party is exchanged for a

promise by the other. The exchange of promises is enough to render them both

enforceable. Thus in a contract for the sale of goods, the buyer promises to pay

the price and the seller promises to deliver the goods.

Unilateral contracts

A unilateral contract is one where one party promises to do something in return

for an act of the other party, as opposed to a promise, eg, where X promises

Keep working, Mike. This contract

needs more obfuscation.


218

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS

a reward to anyone who will find his lost wallet. The essence of the unilateral contract is that only one party, X, is bound to do anything. No one is bound to search for the lost wallet, but if Y, having seen the offer, recovers the wallet and returns it, he/she is entitled to the reward. ELEMENTS The essential elements of a contract are: Agreement An agreement is formed when one party accepts the offer of another and involves a “meeting of the minds”. Consideration Both parties must have provided consideration, ie, each side must promise to give or do something for the other. Intention to create legal relations The parties must have intended their agreement to have legal consequences. The law will not concern itself with purely domestic or social agreements. In some cases, certain formalities (that is, writing) must be observed. Capacity The parties must be legally capable of entering into a contract. Some persons, e.g. children have limited capacity to make contracts. Consent The agreement must have been entered into freely. Consent may be vitiated by duress, mistake, misrepresentation or undue influence. Legality The purpose of the agreement must not be illegal or contrary to public policy. Contract which possesses all these requirements is said to be valid. The absence of an essential element will render the contract either void, voidable or unenforceable (as to which see below). 1. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true or

false:

1. Contract law deals with promises which create legal rights.

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS

2. Consent may be vitiated by duress or undue influence.

3. In all legal systems, parties must give something of value in order for a

contract to be formed.

4. The absence of an essential element will render the contract valid.

5. The assigning party is called the assignee and the party who gets the rights

is called the assignor.

6. The essence of the unilateral contract is that only one party, X, is bound to

do anything.

2. Complete these sentences using the words in the box: capable breach performance simple offer promise freely 1. An agreement is formed when one party accepts the ________________ of another and involves a “meeting of the minds”. 2. Contracts which are not deeds are known as _______________ contracts. 3. The normal method of enforcement is an action for damages for _________________of contract, though in some cases the court may order ________________ by the party in default. 4. The parties must be legally _____________ of entering into a contract. 5. A bilateral contract is one where a ______________ by one party is exchanged for a promise by the other. 6. The agreement must have been entered into _________________. 3. Answer the questions:

1. When does a promise become an enforceable contract?

2. What are two broad classes of contracts?

3. Name essential elements of a contract.

4. What is a basic remedy for a breach of contract in Anglo-American system

of law?

5. What does the absence of an essential element lead to?

4. Translate into Czech these four concepts mentioned above:

misrepresentation _________________

duress _____________

undue influence _____________

mistake ______________

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS

ENFORCEABILITY Void contracts A “void contract” is one where the whole transaction is regarded as a nullity. It means that at no time has there been a contract between the parties. Any goods or money obtained under the agreement must be returned. Where items have been resold to a third party, they may be recovered by the original owner. An example of an illegal contract would be a murder-for-hire. Assume that a famous athlete pays a hitman to kill his wife. The athlete pays the hitman $1 million in advance, but the hitman never kills the athlete’s wife. The athlete cannot sue or take the hitman to court for not performing under the contract. No court would enforce this contract, and the athlete would have to be out of his mind to bring such a case against the hitman. Voidable contracts A contract which is voidable operates in every respect as a valid contract unless and until one of the parties takes steps to avoid it. It is sometimes said that a voidable contract is one that is valid unless it is voided. Anything obtained under the contract must be returned, insofar as this is possible. If goods have been resold before the contract was avoided, the original owner will not be able to reclaim them. An example would be where a painter is contracted to paint a building. The building is demolished by a tornado before the painting can take place. The contract is voidable by building owner or painter since the subject matter has been destroyed. Generally, any contract entered into by a mentallyimpaired person or a minor would be deemed voidable. If a court has declared a person incompetent or a person has been placed under the guardianship of another person, contracts that person enters into would be voidable. Unenforceable contracts An unenforceable contract is a valid contract but it cannot be enforced in the courts for some legal reason. An oral contract for sale of real property is an example of an unforceable contract. Such a contract is required to be in writing to be enforceable. 5. Provide English translation:

1. Tato smlouva je neplatná.

2. Souhlas byl dán pod nátlakem.


221

3. Soudce nařídil konkrétní plnění smlouvy.

4. Předmět smlouvy není v souladu se zákonem.

5. Smlouva je právně vynutitelná.

6. Zrušitelná smlouva je smlouva, která může být kdykoliv zrušena jednou

ze smluvních stran.

7. Nezletilé osoby mají omezenou způsobilost vstupovat do smluvních

vztahů.

8. Smluvní strany uzavřením smlouvy přijímají povinnosti a závazky, které

jsou právně závazné.

9. Smlouva je dohoda mezi stranami, které mají právní způsobilost.

10. Tato ústní dohoda o prodeji nemovitosti není právně vynutitelná.

XXXII. INTRODUCTION TO CONTRACTS




       
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