načítání...


menu
nákupní košík
Košík

je prázdný
a
b

E-kniha: Intonation in English and Czech Dialogues – Jana Chamonikolasová

Intonation in English and Czech Dialogues

Elektronická kniha: Intonation in English and Czech Dialogues
Autor: Jana Chamonikolasová

– Monografie je korpusovou studií intonace v anglické a české konverzaci. Zaměřuje se na délku intonační jednotky, pozici nukleárního tónu, slovně druhové zařazení nositele nukleárního tónu, jeho funkci ve větné perspektivě a na kontury ... (celý popis)
Titul je skladem - ke stažení ihned
Jazyk: anglicky
Médium: e-kniha
Vaše cena s DPH:  167
+
-
5,6
bo za nákup

hodnoceni - 0%hodnoceni - 0%hodnoceni - 0%hodnoceni - 0%hodnoceni - 0%   celkové hodnocení
0 hodnocení + 0 recenzí

Specifikace
Nakladatelství: » Masarykova univerzita
Dostupné formáty
ke stažení:
PDF
Upozornění: většina e-knih je zabezpečena proti tisku a kopírování
Médium: e-book
Rok vydání: 2018
Počet stran: 119
Rozměr: 24 cm
Úprava: ilustrace
Vydání: Vyd. 1.
Skupina třídění: Různé jazyky
Jazyk: anglicky
ADOBE DRM: bez
Nakladatelské údaje: Brno, Masarykova univerzita, 2007
ISBN: 978-80-210-4468-5
Ukázka: » zobrazit ukázku
Popis

Monografie je korpusovou studií intonace v anglické a české konverzaci. Zaměřuje se na délku intonační jednotky, pozici nukleárního tónu, slovně druhové zařazení nositele nukleárního tónu, jeho funkci ve větné perspektivě a na kontury různých typů intonačních jednotek. Tyto jevy byly zkoumány ve čtyřech textech – dvou překladových verzích divadelní hry (české a anglické) a dvou paralelních (srovnatelných) přirozených dialozích (jednom českém a jednom anglickém). Studie srovnává nejen anglické texty s českými, ale také literární dialogy s texty přirozenými (v obou jazycích).

Předmětná hesla
Zařazeno v kategoriích
Jana Chamonikolasová - další tituly autora:
Collected Works of Jan Firbas -- Volume Two (1968-1978) Collected Works of Jan Firbas
 
Recenze a komentáře k titulu
Zatím žádné recenze.


Ukázka / obsah
Přepis ukázky

OPERA UNIVERSITATIS MASARYKIANAE BRUNENSIS

FACULTAS PHILOSOPHICA

SPISY MASARYKOVY UNIVERZITY V BRNĚ

FILOZOFICKÁ FAKULTA

Číslo 365



Brno 2018


© 2007 Jana Chamonikolasová

ISBN 978-80-210-9119-1 (online : pdf)

ISBN 978-80-210-8501-5 (brožovaná vazba)

ISBN 978-80-210-4468-5 (1. vyd.)

ISSN 1211-3034


5

CONTENTS

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

1 Intonation and prosodic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

1.1 The intonation system of English . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

1.1.1 Identifi cation of the tone unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

1.1.2 The internal structure of the tone unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

1.1.3 Degrees of prosodic prominence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

1.1.4 The nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

1.1.5 The prosodic prominence of successive nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1.2 The intonation system of Czech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

1.2.1 Identifi cation of the utterance unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

1.2.2 The internal structure of the utterance unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

1.2.3 Degrees of prosodic prominence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

1.2.4 The intonation centre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

1.2.5 The prosodic prominence of successive intonation centres . . . . . . . . .21 1.3 Common features of the English and Czech intonation systems . . . . . . . . . .21

2 The role of intonation in functional sentence perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

2.1 The sentence as a fi eld of distribution of degrees of communicative

dynamism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 2.2 The non-prosodic factors of FSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

2.2.1 The linear modifi cation factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

2.2.2 The contextual factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

2.2.3 The semantic factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 2.3 Communicative units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

2.3.1 Thematic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

2.3.2. Transitional units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

2.3.3 Rhematic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

2.3.4 The hierarchy of communicative units and the scale of dynamic

semantic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 2.4 The prosodic factor of FSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

3 Analysis of English and Czech intonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

3.1 Description of the research material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

3.1.1 Scripted texts (Protest-Cz and Protest-En) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

3.1.2 Non-scripted texts (Dialogue-Cz and Dialogue-En) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 3.2 Prosodic transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

3.2.1. Transcription of Protest-Cz, Protest-En and Dialogue-Cz . . . . . . . . . . .39

3.2.2. Transcription of Dialogue-En . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 3.3 Description of the database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 INTONATION IN ENGLISH AND CZECH DIALOGUES 4 Comparison of English and Czech intonation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

4.1 Length of the tone unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46

4.2 Position of the nucleus in a tone unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

4.3 Word class functions of nucleus bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

4.4 FSP functions of nucleus bearers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

4.5 Pitch patterns of nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65

4.5.1 Declarative sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

4.5.2 Yes-no questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

4.5.3 Wh-questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

4.5.4 Final pitch movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70

5. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

7

Preface

The focus of the present study is a comparison of English and Czech intonation. Intona

tion studies in the two languages are based on diff erent approaches to prosodic systems

and diff erent traditions in prosodic transcription. This book, presenting a corpus-based

analysis of English and Czech, draws on the traditions of both languages with a certain

preference for English prosodic transcription systems. A simplifi ed version of one of the

English systems has been applied for the analysis of both English and Czech texts.

The work is a modifi ed version of the author’s doctoral dissertation. The scope

of the study is limited by the possibilities and abilities of one author working without

recourse to a team of trained phoneticians and computer experts; therefore, it undoubt

edly leaves open many questions concerning the correlation between English and

Czech intonation. Perhaps the study can provide the basis for a more comprehensive

future comparison of the two, and possibly additional, languages.

8

Acknowledgements

I owe a debt of gratitude especially to Jan Firbas, who supervised my research for

a number of years and who devoted innumerable hours of his precious time to discus

sions of the topics dealt with in my doctoral dissertation – the basis of this book. I am

also deeply grateful to Jan Svartvik, who advised me on the conception of the disserta

tion during my stay at Lund University. Last but not least, I would like to thank Libuše

Dušková and Aleš Svoboda, who reviewed the dissertation and made a number of

valuable comments and suggestions, and Matthew Nicholls, who carried out a most

careful language revision of the text of this book.

9

Abbreviations

A speaker A

B speaker B

adj adjective

adv adverb, adverbial

att attributive

aux auxiliary verb

B quality bearer

CD communicative dynamism

con conjunction

D context dependent

dem demonstrative

exc exclamation

FSP functional sentence perspective

FSp further specifi cation

int intensive particle

I context independent

LLC London-Lund Corpus

I+P interjections and particles

lex lexical

M melody

mea adverb expressing measure

N noun

nlx non-lexical

num numeral

oth other

per personal

pol polarity particle

pos possessive

Ph phenomenon

Pr presentation

pre preposition

pro pronoun

ptm adverbs expressing place, time and manner

qua quantifi er

Q quality

refl refl exive pronoun

Rh rheme

RhPr rheme proper

SD standard deviation

sen sentence adverb

Sp specifi cation

Th theme

ThPr theme proper

TME temporal and modal exponent

Tr transition

TrPr transition proper

V verb

wh- wh-word

11

1 Intonation and prosodic systems

Intonation, the occurrence of various tunes or melodies in utterances, is the result of the

operation of a set of prosodic systems. Each language has a specifi c intonation system,

and in a particular communicative situation, speakers of diff erent languages may apply

diff erent tunes. The discussion of English intonation presented in section 1.1 is based on

the traditional British ‘contour’ analysis, especially the conceptions presented by Crystal

(1969), O’Connor and Arnold (1973), and Cruttenden (1986), who summarize and further

develop some of the earlier intonation systems. The discussion of Czech intonation in

section 1.2 draws mainly on Palková (1994), Daneš (1957) and two grammars of Czech:

Mluvnice češtiny 1 [A grammar of the Czech language] (Petr et al. 1986) and Příruční

mluvnice češtiny [A handbook of Czech grammar 1] (Karlík et al. 1995). Section 1.3 deals

with the correlation between the intonation systems of the two languages.

1.1 The intonation system of English

Crystal (1969: 5, 140, 195) views intonation as a complex of features from diff erent pro

sodic systems; prosodic systems are defi ned as “non-segmental characteristics of speech

referable to variations in pitch, loudness, duration and silence, other vocal eff ects being

irrelevant to their identifi cation”. Crystal lists the following prosodic systems: pitch direc

tion (or tone), pitch range, pause, loudness, tempo, rhythmicality, and tension. Relevance

of the prosodic systems listed above for the description of intonation decreases from the

fi rst to the last; the discussion of intonation in this survey will focus on the most relevant

prosodic systems, i.e. pitch direction and pitch range, while other prosodic systems will

receive less attention. Pause will be discussed in connection with speech segmentation

(tone-unit identifi cation); rhythmicality will be mentioned in connection with rhythm

groups in Czech; loudness and tempo will not be described in detail, although their

eff ects have been taken into consideration in the actual prosodic analysis of texts (for

example the eff ect of tempo on the segmentation of utterances into tone units).

1.1.1 Identifi cation of the tone unit

Connected speech is divided by means of intonation into tone units which are per

ceived by the listener as relatively complete. Crystal (1969: 204) defi nes a tone unit as

“the most readily perceivable, recurrent, maximal functional unit to which linguistic

meanings can be attached”. Tone units may correspond to clauses, but very often to

smaller grammatical units, e.g. noun or adverbial phrases; a tone unit may consist of

a single word. Diff erent authors refer to tone units by diff erent names. The expression

tone-unit is used by Crystal;

1

Cruttenden uses the term intonation-groups; O’Connor

and Arnold speak about tone groups and word groups, while other authors use the

expressions sense-groups, breath-groups, phonological phrases, phonological clauses,

1 The same term (spelled without a hyphen, i.e. ‘tone unit’) is applied in Svartvik and Quirk 1979

and Svartvik 1990.



       
Knihkupectví Knihy.ABZ.cz – online prodej | ABZ Knihy, a.s.