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E-kniha: Dictionary of Zen Buddhist Terminology (A-K) - Kamil V. Zvelebil

Dictionary of Zen Buddhist Terminology (A-K)

Elektronická kniha: Dictionary of Zen Buddhist Terminology (A-K)
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The purpose of the present work is to be a handy, ready-to-use aid to those who practice Zen Buddhism rather than a detailed scholarly work destined for „Buddhologists“. To compile an exhaustive ... (celý popis)
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The purpose of the present work is to be a handy, ready-to-use aid to those who practice Zen Buddhism rather than a detailed scholarly work destined for „Buddhologists“. To compile an exhaustive dictionary of Zen Buddhist terms in English, Pali, Sanskrit, Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese is beyond the capability of an individual. Hence, what is offered for daily use of the practitioners is a basic and indispensable „pocket“ glossary of Zen Buddhist terminology, of words encountered in temples and monasteries as well as in some basic literature. The author has received Buddhist precepts in the ceremony of lay ordination on 4. 9. 1989 in Kyoto, Japan. He is also a former professor of Indian studies at the universities of Prague, Heidelberg, Chicago, Utrecht and the Collège de France. Every single entry in the glossary was sent off for criticism and approval to Daitsu Tom Wright, a Zen Buddhist monk and professor at the university in Kyoto, who offered wise advice and critical approval. Needless to say that the author, Dosho K. V. Zvelebil, is most grateful for his cooperation, while being fully responsible for any errors, omissions and inadequacies found in the text.

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DICTIONARY

OF ZEN BUDDHIST TERMINOLOGY


Contents

Foreword and Acknowledgments / 9

Introductory remark / 11

Preface / 15

Dictionary / 23

Addenda / 162

The historical Buddha / 162

The hierarchy of clerics in the Soto school of Zen / 164

Bibliography / 167 All rights reserved Dictionary of Zen Buddhist terminology Part One: from a- tokProf. Dr. Kamil V. Zvelebil, CSc. © Kamil V. Zvelebil, 2003 © TRITON, 2003 Cover © Renata Ryšlavá, 2003 Published by TRITON, s. r. o., Vykáňská 5, 100 00 Praha 10, www.triton-books.cz ISBN 80-7254-438-1


Foreword and Acknowledgments

As stated below, it would probably be more to the point

to entitle the following work ,glossary‘ rather than ,dic-

tionary‘ (a term which seems to me to be too pretentious). Also, the term ,glossary‘ points, at least to my

mind, more precisely to the purpose of the work: to be

a handy, ready-to-use aid to those who practice Zen

Buddhism rather than a detailed work destined forscholars to study.

I am in the first place indebted to Madame Giselle TATOUAT who has taken care, with infinite patience, of the editorial and technical side of the work, typing out every single item, after having discussed it with me, and sending it off to Japan for control.

I can hardly express in adequate words my gratitude to Daitsu Tom WRIGHT of Kyoto. He has taken up every single entry for critical perusal, added innumerable comments, discussed some of the items with Zen monks and scholars in Japan, offered wise advice as well assevere admonitions wherever deserved. Without Daitsu Tom this work could have never been accomplished.

Needless to say that I am most grateful to thepublisher, Dr Stanislav JUHANAK of TRITON publications in Prague, for his eager willingness to publish this work, and to the members of the staff of the publishing house Triton.


Introductory remark

The original plan was to compile an exhaustivedictionary of Zen Buddhist terms, in English, Pali, Sanskrit,

Chinese, Korean and Japanese. It was found that this

task is beyond the capacities of an individual. A whole

team of Zen Buddhist scholars would be necessary to

bring out such work, and, in addition, to include terms

from such languages as Vietnamese, or such usage as

e.g. the contemporary American English usage. Hence,

what is offered here for simple daily use of practitioners is a basic and indispensable „pocket“ glossary

of Zen Buddhist terms in Pali (Pa), Sanskrit (Skt),Chinese (C), Japanese (J) and Korean (K), with theemphasis on Japanese, and in English (E). The sequence of

entries is in the English alphabetic order. No personal

names (of people, deities, bodhisattvas etc.) and nonames of texts or literary works have been included.

A distinction is not made between the usage of the three

Japanese Zen Buddhist schools, Obaku, Rinzai and Soto,

unless the difference is really striking. Apart from abbreviations for the languages, few additionalabbreviations are used: B = Buddhist, MB = Mahayana Buddhist,

TB = Theravada Buddhist, R = Rinzai, S = Soto. Words

in original languages are included in „broad“, i.e.Anglicized transcription, bearing in mind the usage ofpractitioners who are not familiar with the diacritics and other

Because of its nature as a sort of ,pocket‘ aid topractitioners, I prefer to have it published in two relatively

slender volumes, one containing entries from a- to k-,

the other entries from l- to z-.

I am of course fully responsible for any errors,ommissions, and inadequaces occurring in the text.

Dosho Kamil V. Zvelebil

10 DICTIONARY OF ZEN BUDDHIST TERMINOLOGY


treatises on Son (Zen, KVZ) praxis and collections of

Son lore. Most began their meditation training only after

they were steeped in the basic teachings of Buddhism.

Many had several years of study in the seminary behind them before they even considered startingmeditation; as one monk told me, an infant must learn to

crawl before it tries to walk, and so too must monksstudy before they begin to meditate“.

2

Although I stressed the fact that this dictionary was

indispensable for those who are engaged in Zen Buddhist practice, I certainly do not exclude thepossibility of using this work by those who read or study about

Zen Buddhism, or, in fact, those who are interested in

Buddhism generally, as well as Buddhist scholars (so

called „Buddhologists“, a term I dislike).

3

13INTRODUCTORY REMARK

markings of the original languages. Length of vowels is

indicated by double vowels.

While working on this dictionary, I was muchinspired by the belief of the great modern Korean Zenmaster Suryon Kusan Sunim (1908–1983) that „a scholarly

career was a viable vocation of a Buddhist in the West,

which does not yet have the developed monastictraditions so necessary for a celibate lifestyle“

1

.

Also, by what Robert E.Buswell, Jr., writes in hisvery valuable book on Korean Buddhism: „Perhaps the

most fundamental self-definition of the Zen school reeated ad infinitum in Western literature – so fundamental that it is often made to constitute a virtual root

paradigm of the Zen tradition – is the famous four-line

aphorism attributed to Bodhidharma...: Zen is ,a special

transmission of Buddhism distinct from the teachings,

which is not dependent on words and letters.‘ Taking

the statement at face value, many Western writersdeict Zen Buddhism as radically bibliophobic andadvocate that doctrinal understanding has no place in Zen

training. But would such a reading be correct?... Most

Korean monks training in the meditation hall haveextensive knowledge of Buddhist doctrine, ranging frombasic „Hiinayaana“ and Mahaayaana suutras, to theoretical

12 DICTIONARY OF ZEN BUDDHIST TERMINOLOGY

1)

Robert E. Boswell, Jr., The Zen Monastic Experience, Princeton

University Press, 1992, p.95.

2)

Ibid.p.217.

3)

The compiler of the dictionary, Dosho-san (Dr. K. V. Zvelebil) has

received Buddhist precepts in the ceremony of zaike tokudo on

the 4th day of the 9th month of the 1st year of Era Heisei

(4. 9. 1989) from Ven. Yuho Hosokawa and Ven.Shohaku Okumura

at Taiheizan Sosenji in Kyoto, Japan. Dosho-san is a formerprofessor of Indian studies at the Universities of Prague, Heidelberg,Chicago, Utrecht and the Colle`ge de France. He has translated into his

native Czech Kosho Uchiyama Roshi’s Open the Hand of Thought

(1993; Czech version 2000), and teaches as visiting professor at

Charles University in Prague (lectures on Zen Buddhism etc.).


Preface

It is perhaps of advantage and necessity to give at this

place a survey – as brief and as simple as possible – of the

basic doctrinal background of all types of Zen Buddhism;

in other words, a very brief survey of Mahayana Buddhist

philosophy.

Let me begin this survey with a quotation from the well-known classic, Aldous Huxley’s The PerennialPhilosophy

1

: „The last end of man, the ultimate reason for

human existence, is unitive knowledge of the divine

Ground – the knowledge that can come only to those

who are prepared to ,die to self‘... Out of any givengeneration of men and women very few will achieve the

final end of human existence; but the opportunity forcoming to unitive knowledge will, in one way or another,

continually be offered until all sentient beings realize

Who in fact they are.“ This is nearly in full agreement

with the doctrines of Mahayana Buddhism.

„The Absolute Ground of all existence has apersonal aspect... Mahayana Buddhism“ (proceeds Huxley) „teaches these same metaphysical doctrines“ (as Hinduism and Christianity, KVZ) „in terms of the ,Three Bo- 1) London, Chatto and Windus, 1957, pp.28 ff.




       
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