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Kniha: Biosocial Interactions in Modernisation – Robert Cliquet

Biosocial Interactions in Modernisation
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Kniha: Biosocial Interactions in Modernisation
Autor: Robert Cliquet

– Publikace Biosociální interakce v procesu modernizace se zabývá celou škálou významných společenských otázek, plynoucích ze střetu evoluční výbavy lidstva a biosociálních požadavků moderního života. Látka je uspořádána do celků podle ... (celý popis)
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Jazyk: anglicky
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Specifikace
Nakladatelství: » muni PRESS
Médium / forma: Tištěná kniha
Rok vydání: 2010
Počet stran: 726
Rozměr: 242,0x172,0x44,0 mm
Úprava: xxxii, 693 stran: ilustrace
Skupina třídění: Sociální procesy
Hmotnost: 1,349kg
Jazyk: anglicky
Vazba: Brožovaná bez přebalu lesklá
Téma: biosociální interakce
Nakladatelské údaje: [Brno], Masaryk University Press, 2010
ISBN: 978-80-210-4986-4
EAN: 9788021049864
Ukázka: » zobrazit ukázku
Popis

Publikace Biosociální interakce v procesu modernizace se zabývá celou škálou významných společenských otázek, plynoucích ze střetu evoluční výbavy lidstva a biosociálních požadavků moderního života. Látka je uspořádána do celků podle nejpodstatnějších zdrojů biosociální variability: individuální různost, věková různost, sexuální různost, rodinná různost, reprodukční různost, sociální různost, rasová různost a mezigenerační různost. Analýza každého zdroje variací začíná rozborem jeho biologicko-evolučního základu, následuje zevrubný přehled jeho biosociálních vazeb specifických pro variabilitu a závěr každé části tvoří úvahy nad důsledky plynoucími z konfrontace mezi lidským evolučním dědictvím specifickým pro variabilitu na straně jedné, a požadavky a adaptivními nároky vytvořenými novým životním prostředím, vzniklým v procesu modernizace, na straně druhé. Kniha zkoumá nejvýznamnější zdroje lidské biosociální variability ve vztahu k maladaptivním moderním sociálním praktikám, jako je individualismus, diskriminace starých lidí, sexismus, nadřazování rodiny nad jednotlivce, pro- nebo antinatalismus, třídní předsudky, rasismus a dysgeneze. Publikace přináší neotřelý a originální pohled na humanitní a společenské vědy i nepřehlédnutelné nové podněty pro všechny, kdo se zajímají o biologii.

Další popis

Kniha hledá hlavní příčiny biosociální diverzity v rámci lidského druhu (osobnostní, věkové, sexuální, rodinné, reproduktivní, skupinové, mezipopulační a mezigenerační odlišnosti) a klade je do souvislosti s různými netolerantními přístupy doby modernizace, jako jsou například individualismus, ageismus, sexismus, familismus, pro- / antinatalismus, grupismus, rasismus a dysgenismus. Každý faktor ovlivňující biosociální diverzitu je vysvětlen na základě jeho biologického vývoje. Variabilně specifické biosociální vztahy v rámci lidské společnosti jsou studovány v souvislosti s variabilně specifickým odkazem vývoje lidského druhu, stejně jako s novými výzvami a adaptivními potřebami, které přináší nové prostředí, jež vzniklo v průběhu modernizace.


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Ukázka / obsah
Přepis ukázky

CHAPTER 1: EVOLUTIONARY BACKGROUND OF

BIOSOCIAL INTERACTIONS

INTRODUCTION

THE BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL EVOLUTION

OF HUMANKIND

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF BIOSOCIAL

INTERACTIONS

THE STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF SOCIALITY

The evolution of social behaviour

The recent controversy about sociobiology

SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE SOCIAL AND BEHAVIOURAL

SCIENCES

FACTS AND VALUES IN BIOSOCIAL INTERACTIONS

The evolutionary origin and function of ethics

The 'Is/ought' controversy

THE SOCIAL BIOLOGY OF MODERNISATION

The major types of biosocial variation

The major biosocial challenges in modern culture

Individual variation and 'individualism'

Age variation and 'ageism'

Sexual variation and 'sexism'

Family variation and 'familism'

Reproductive variation and 'pro/anti-natalism'

Social class variation and 'classisim'

Racial variation and 'racism'

Inter generational variation and 'dysgenism'

Policy implications

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 2: INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

AND INDIVIDUALISM

INTRODUCTION

EVOLUTIONARY BACKGROUND

Some basic genetic concepts

The genetic unique identity of the individual

Evolutionary mechanisms and individual variation

The Hardy-Weinberg law

Mutation

Selection

Genetic drift

Genetic migration

Partner choice

The level of selection: individual or group selection?

GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

The obsolete nature-nurture discussion

Measuring the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors

The polygenic inheritance system

Dissecting the variance of quantitative traits

Two sensitive matters: IQ and criminality...

The fractioning of IQ

Defining and measuring dimensions of cognitive abilities

Heritability of intelligence

The role of environmental factors in the development of intelligence

Criminal behaviour

Genetics and criminality

The neurosciences and delinquency

Evolutionary biology and antisocial behaviour

Concluding considerations concerning biology and crime

BIOLOGICAL SOURCES OF INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

General variation

Normality versus abnormality

General variation within the 'normality' range

Age variation

Sexual variation

Racial variation

INDIVIDUAL-SOCIETAL INTERDEPENDENCY

The ontogenetic interdependency between individuals

The genetic interrelationship between individual and population

Individual competition versus social cooperation

INDIVIDUALISM IN MODERN SOCIETY

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 3: AGE VARIATION AND AGEISM

INTRODUCTION

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

Evolutionary background

Secular growth acceleration

The increasing gap between biological maturation and social maturity

AGEING AND SENESCENCE

Evolutionary background

The evolutionary theory of senescence

Population genetic mechanisms of the evolution of senescence

Brain development and the evolution of the lifespan

Longevity and ageing/senescence

From a concave to a convex survival curve

From curve squaring to life extension?

Demographic implications of ageing

Population greying

Population dejuvenation

Societal implications of individual and population ageing

Attitudinal ambiguities

The expected increasing elderly dependency burden

The expected growing need for health and welfare care

Labour shortage

Intergenerational relations

Social differentials in longevity

DEATH

The biological meaning of death

The prolongation of the dying process

Death control

Palliative care

Euthanasia

Definition

Legislation

Attitudes

Palliative sedation versus euthanasia

AGEISM

Ageist attitudes and behaviour towards seniors

Social exclusion of seniors

Increasing gap between social and biological ageing in modern culture

AGEING AND AGEISM IN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 4: SEXUAL VARIATION AND SEXISM

INTRODUCTION

EVOLUTIONARY ORIGINS OF SEXUAL VARIATION

Sexual selection

Feminisation of the human male

Sexual evolution of the human female

Evolution of sexual steering

Explanation of human sexual dimorphism

ONTOGENETIC DETERMINANTS OF SEXUAL VARIATION

Sex and gender identity/role

Socially important aspects of sexual determination and differentiation

MAJOR SOCIALLY RELEVANT CHARACTERISTICS

OF HUMAN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM

Mind

Body build

Genital sexuality

Reproduction

Health

OTHER SEXUALLY DIFFERENTIAL BEHAVIOURAL FEATURES

Crime

Homosexuality

Proximate causes of homosexuality

Endocrinological findings

Neurological findings

Genetic findings

Evolutionary explanations

Homophobia

The future of homosexuality

Sex-related social differences

Sexism

Sexist ideologies

Sexism, sexual emancipation, and science

Female social inferiority versus biological superiority: a paradox?

Feminism and masculism

MALADAPTATION OF SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN MODERN CULTURE

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 5: FAMILY VARIATION AND FAMILISM

INTRODUCTION

BIOLOGICAL ORIGINS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY

Parental investment in slowly-maturing offspring

The origin and evolution of love

FAMILIES IN MODERN CULTURE

Recent trends in family (related) behaviour

Background of the modern family transition

Determinants of recent family changes

PARTNERSHIP IN MODERN CULTURE

Partner choice

Preferred and selected partner features

Good genes theory

Parental investment theory

Reproductive value theory

Paternity confidence theory

Combined partner features

Mate selection

Sex assortment

Kin assortment

Assortative mating in general

Types of partnership

Single partnership

Multiple partnerships

Dynamics of partnership

Causes and consequences

THE FUTURE OF THE FAMILY

Disappearance of the family

Back to the traditional family?

Modern family variation

What about the more distant future?

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 6: REPRODUCTIVE VARIATION AND

PRO/ANTI-NATALISM

INTRODUCTION

THE EVOLUTIONARY BACKGROUND OF HUMAN

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR

General evolutionary trends with respect to reproduction

Maximisation of inclusive fitness

The paradox between maximisation of inclusive fitness

and the demographic transition

Explanations for the paradox

Changed relations between phenotypic and genotypic fitness

in modernisation

THE IMPACT OF MODERNISATION ON HUMAN REPRODUCTION

Sexual maturation

Pair bonding

Desired fertility / Childbearing motivation

Coital behaviour

Fecundity

Proceptive behaviour

Contraceptive behaviour

The contraceptive transitions in modern culture

Effects of the second contraceptive transition

Pregnancy

Effects of medical interventions

Spontaneous and induced abortion

Delivery and birth

Birth interval

Menopause

Sterility

Fertility

Fertility at the family level

Fertility at the population level

Below-replacement fertility

Population dejuvenation

Population decline

Qualitative effects of the new fertility regime

Parenting

Evolutionary background: increased parental investment

Parenthood in modern culture

PRO- AND ANTI-NATALISM

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL CLASS VARIATION AND CLASSISM

INTRODUCTION

THE EVOLUTIONARY BACKGROUND OF WITHIN-POPULATION GROUP

VARIATION

HISTORICAL THEORIES ABOUT BIOSOCIAL INEQUALITIES

The anthropo-sociological school of thought

Social Darwinism

Marxist biological doctrine

THE SOCIAL-BIOLOGICAL APPROACH OF BIOSOCIAL INTERACTIONS

Social assortment and social selection

Environmental influences

Genetic-environmental covariance

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL VARIATION

Body size and body build

Growth and maturation

Health and longevity

Measured intelligence

CAUSES OF INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN BIOLOGICAL VARIATION

AND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

Environmental influences linked to social status differences

Social assortment: social mobility and biological variation

Empirical findings about the relationship between social mobility

and biological variation

Explanations of the relationship between social mobility and

biological variation

GENETICS AND SOCIAL MOBILITY

The assortment of phenotypes and genotypes

Implications of segregation and recombination of genes

for social mobility

The role of mate choice in the social assortment of

biological characteristics

The controversy over 'The Bell Curve'

EGALITARIANISM VERSUS MERITOCRACY?

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 8: RACIAL VARIATION AND RACISM

INTRODUCTION

THE EVOLUTIONARY BACKGROUND OF BETWEEN-POPULATION

VARIATION

Splitting of populations

Fusion

Adaptation

BIOLOGICAL BETWEEN-POPULATION DIFFERENCES

Behavioural-genetic between-population differences

Jensen's 'default hypothesis' of between-population differences4

in cognitive ability

The 'culture-only' hypothesis of between-population differences

in cognitive ability

Drawing conclusions about the genetic-environmental controversy

over between-population differences in cognitive ability

Evolutionary explanations for the origin of between-population

differences in cognitive ability

IN-GROUP/OUT-GROUP BEHAVIOUR

Typology

The cultural history of racism, ethnocentrism, and xenophobia

Behavioural patterns related to in-group/out-group relations

Explanations for sociological dominant/subordinate relations

Inferior and superior populations?

EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS FOR THE IN-GROUP/OUT-GROUP

SYNDROME

Kin selection theory

Reciprocity theory

Similarity theory

Selfish gene theory as basis for in-group/out-group antagonisms

Balance of power theory

In-group/out-group syndrome: maladapted to the novel environment

of modern culture.

CULTURAL AUTONOMISM, INTEGRATIONALISM, OR

MULTICULTURALISM?

Cultural autonomism/independence for historical ethnic components

Integration of recent immigrant groups

Multiculturalism: fact or fiction?

THE FUTURE OF BETWEEN-POPULATION DIFFERENCES

AND RELATIONS

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 9: INTERGENERATIONAL VARIATION

AND DYSGENISM

INTRODUCTION

TIME DIMENSION

HERITAGE OF THE PAST

Biological heritage

Cultural heritage

Conflicting and competing value and norm systems

Emergence of modern science

Effects of modern culture on intergenerational variation

Phenotypic effects

Genetic effects

Contra-selective effects of modern culture

Contraselective effects of replacement therapies

Contra-selective effects of differential reproduction with

respect to intelligence

CRUCIAL CULTURAL DETERMINANTS FOR THE FUTURE

Future scientific and technological developments

Ethical goals for the future

Euphenic goals

Eugenic goals

The ultimate aim of eugenics: carrying forward the hominisation

process

Rationale for the preservation and the advancement of

human-specific characteristics

General societal conditions for implementing a eugenic programme

Scientific and social dimensions of eugenics

Broad and narrow eugenics

Eugenic target levels

Eugenic benefits and costs

Eugenic fallacies of the past

ETHICAL CONCERNS

Ethical concerns about eugenics in general

Ethical issues in eugenic practice

Attitudes towards eugenics

REFERENCES


CHAPTER 10: ETHICAL AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS

REGARDING THE BIOSOCIAL FUTURE OF HUMANKIND

INTRODUCTION

BASIC ETHICAL OPTIONS RELEVANT FOR THE BIOLOGICAL

FUTURE OF THE HUMAN SPECIES

Intervention versus non-intervention

Quality versus quantity

Equality versus inequality

Cooperation versus competition

Out-group versus in-group

Intergenerational versus intragenerational care

COMMON FEATURES AND CHALLENGES OF BIOSOCIAL SOURCES

OF VARIATION IN MODERN SOCIETY

ADAPTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINED AND SUSTAINABLE

FURTHER PROGRESS

Individual variation

Difference ^ inequality

Adjusting individual aspirations to societal demands

Age variation

Active ageing - sense of reality or lip service?

Combatting ageism - adapting to ageing

Increasing age at retirement

Varying age at retirement

Death control

Sexual variation

Reconciliation ofproductive and reproductive functions

Empowerment of women

Mastering male competitive behaviour

Family variation

Reproductive variation

Policy implications regarding fertility control

Policies regarding contraception

Policy implications regarding abortion

Policy implications regarding fertility

Policy goals regarding fertility

Feasibility of policy measures regarding fertility

Policy measures for redressing fertility at or around replacement level

Rebalancing individual and societal values with

respect to intergenerational continuity

Rethinking the entire life course perspective regarding

education, employment and retirement

Within-population group variation

Inter-population variation

Reducing between-group inequalities


Combating the in-group/out-group syndrome

Exposing the false notion of multiculturalism

Intergenerational variation

Euphenic engineering

Eugenic engineering

Biotechnology

Genetically differential demographic behaviour




       
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